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Prospective study of fruit and vegetable intake and risk of prostate cancer.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Several epidemiologic studies have reported associations between fruit and vegetable intake and reduced risk of prostate cancer, but the findings are inconsistent and data on clinically relevant advanced prostate cancer are limited.

METHODS

We evaluated the association between prostate cancer risk and intake of fruits and vegetables in 1338 patients with prostate cancer among 29,361 men (average follow-up = 4.2 years) in the screening arm of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Participants completed both a general risk factor and a 137-item food-frequency questionnaire at baseline. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). All statistical tests were two-sided.

RESULTS

Vegetable and fruit consumption was not related to prostate cancer risk overall; however, risk of extraprostatic prostate cancer (stage III or IV tumors) decreased with increasing vegetable intake (RR = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.22 to 0.74, for high versus low intake; P(trend) = .01). This association was mainly explained by intake of cruciferous vegetables (RR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.36 to 0.98, for high versus low intake; P(trend) = .02), in particular, broccoli (RR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.34 to 0.89, for >1 serving per week versus <1 serving per month; P(trend) = .02) and cauliflower (RR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.25 to 0.89 for >1 serving per week versus <1 serving per month; P(trend) = .03). We found some evidence that risk of aggressive prostate cancer decreased with increasing spinach consumption, but the findings were not consistently statistically significant when restricted to extraprostatic disease.

CONCLUSION

High intake of cruciferous vegetables, including broccoli and cauliflower, may be associated with reduced risk of aggressive prostate cancer, particularly extraprostatic disease.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Research Unit, Division of Preventive Oncology, Cancer Care Ontario, Toronto, ON, Canada.

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    Source

    Journal of the National Cancer Institute 99:15 2007 Aug 01 pg 1200-9

    MeSH

    Adenocarcinoma
    Aged
    Brassicaceae
    Cohort Studies
    Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)
    Ethnic Groups
    Feeding Behavior
    Follow-Up Studies
    Fruit
    Humans
    Life Style
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Motor Activity
    Neoplasm Invasiveness
    Proportional Hazards Models
    Prospective Studies
    Prostatic Neoplasms
    Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
    Risk
    Smoking
    Spinacia oleracea
    Surveys and Questionnaires
    United States
    Vegetables

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Multicenter Study
    Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
    Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    17652276

    Citation

    Kirsh, Victoria A., et al. "Prospective Study of Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Risk of Prostate Cancer." Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 99, no. 15, 2007, pp. 1200-9.
    Kirsh VA, Peters U, Mayne ST, et al. Prospective study of fruit and vegetable intake and risk of prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2007;99(15):1200-9.
    Kirsh, V. A., Peters, U., Mayne, S. T., Subar, A. F., Chatterjee, N., Johnson, C. C., & Hayes, R. B. (2007). Prospective study of fruit and vegetable intake and risk of prostate cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 99(15), pp. 1200-9.
    Kirsh VA, et al. Prospective Study of Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Risk of Prostate Cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2007 Aug 1;99(15):1200-9. PubMed PMID: 17652276.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Prospective study of fruit and vegetable intake and risk of prostate cancer. AU - Kirsh,Victoria A, AU - Peters,Ulrike, AU - Mayne,Susan T, AU - Subar,Amy F, AU - Chatterjee,Nilanjan, AU - Johnson,Christine C, AU - Hayes,Richard B, AU - ,, Y1 - 2007/07/24/ PY - 2007/7/27/pubmed PY - 2007/8/19/medline PY - 2007/7/27/entrez SP - 1200 EP - 9 JF - Journal of the National Cancer Institute JO - J. Natl. Cancer Inst. VL - 99 IS - 15 N2 - BACKGROUND: Several epidemiologic studies have reported associations between fruit and vegetable intake and reduced risk of prostate cancer, but the findings are inconsistent and data on clinically relevant advanced prostate cancer are limited. METHODS: We evaluated the association between prostate cancer risk and intake of fruits and vegetables in 1338 patients with prostate cancer among 29,361 men (average follow-up = 4.2 years) in the screening arm of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Participants completed both a general risk factor and a 137-item food-frequency questionnaire at baseline. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Vegetable and fruit consumption was not related to prostate cancer risk overall; however, risk of extraprostatic prostate cancer (stage III or IV tumors) decreased with increasing vegetable intake (RR = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.22 to 0.74, for high versus low intake; P(trend) = .01). This association was mainly explained by intake of cruciferous vegetables (RR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.36 to 0.98, for high versus low intake; P(trend) = .02), in particular, broccoli (RR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.34 to 0.89, for >1 serving per week versus <1 serving per month; P(trend) = .02) and cauliflower (RR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.25 to 0.89 for >1 serving per week versus <1 serving per month; P(trend) = .03). We found some evidence that risk of aggressive prostate cancer decreased with increasing spinach consumption, but the findings were not consistently statistically significant when restricted to extraprostatic disease. CONCLUSION: High intake of cruciferous vegetables, including broccoli and cauliflower, may be associated with reduced risk of aggressive prostate cancer, particularly extraprostatic disease. SN - 1460-2105 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/17652276/Prospective_study_of_fruit_and_vegetable_intake_and_risk_of_prostate_cancer_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/jnci/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/jnci/djm065 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -