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Determination of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its precursors in blood and urine samples: a salting-out approach.
Forensic Sci Int. 2007 Aug 06; 170(2-3):133-8.FS

Abstract

Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is an increasingly popular drug of abuse that causes stimulation, euphoria, anxiolysis or hypnosis, depending on the dose used. Low doses of the drug are used recreationally, and also implicated in drug-facilitated sexual assaults. Because of the unusually steep dose-response curves, accidental GHB overdosing, leading to coma, seizures or death can occur. Being a controlled substance, GHB is often substituted with its non-scheduled precursors gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (BD), which are rapidly metabolized into GHB in the body. Here we describe an assay for GHB, GBL and BD in blood and/or urine samples. GHB and BD were extracted from diluted 200 microL aliquots of samples with t-butylmethylether (plus internal standard benzyl alcohol) in test tubes preloaded with NaCl. After acidification and centrifugation the solvent phase was transferred to a test tube preloaded with Na(2)SO(4), incubated for 30 min, centrifuged again, and evaporated in vacuum. The residue was mixed with N-methyl-N-trimethylsilyl-trifluoroacetamide (MSTFA) in acetonitrile, and injected into a GC-MS. When analyzing GBL, the salting-out step was omitted, and analysis was performed with a GC-FID apparatus. As revealed by the validation data this procedure is suitable for quantitative determination of GHB and its precursors in blood and/or urine samples.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Drug Research Unit, Department of Mental Health and Alcohol Research, National Public Health Institute, Mannerheimintie 166, Helsinki, Finland. aino.kankaanpaa@ktl.fi <aino.kankaanpaa@ktl.fi>No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

17658710

Citation

Kankaanpää, Aino, et al. "Determination of Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and Its Precursors in Blood and Urine Samples: a Salting-out Approach." Forensic Science International, vol. 170, no. 2-3, 2007, pp. 133-8.
Kankaanpää A, Liukkonen R, Ariniemi K. Determination of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its precursors in blood and urine samples: a salting-out approach. Forensic Sci Int. 2007;170(2-3):133-8.
Kankaanpää, A., Liukkonen, R., & Ariniemi, K. (2007). Determination of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its precursors in blood and urine samples: a salting-out approach. Forensic Science International, 170(2-3), 133-8.
Kankaanpää A, Liukkonen R, Ariniemi K. Determination of Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and Its Precursors in Blood and Urine Samples: a Salting-out Approach. Forensic Sci Int. 2007 Aug 6;170(2-3):133-8. PubMed PMID: 17658710.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Determination of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its precursors in blood and urine samples: a salting-out approach. AU - Kankaanpää,Aino, AU - Liukkonen,Raija, AU - Ariniemi,Kari, Y1 - 2007/07/20/ PY - 2007/7/31/pubmed PY - 2007/10/19/medline PY - 2007/7/31/entrez SP - 133 EP - 8 JF - Forensic science international JO - Forensic Sci Int VL - 170 IS - 2-3 N2 - Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is an increasingly popular drug of abuse that causes stimulation, euphoria, anxiolysis or hypnosis, depending on the dose used. Low doses of the drug are used recreationally, and also implicated in drug-facilitated sexual assaults. Because of the unusually steep dose-response curves, accidental GHB overdosing, leading to coma, seizures or death can occur. Being a controlled substance, GHB is often substituted with its non-scheduled precursors gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (BD), which are rapidly metabolized into GHB in the body. Here we describe an assay for GHB, GBL and BD in blood and/or urine samples. GHB and BD were extracted from diluted 200 microL aliquots of samples with t-butylmethylether (plus internal standard benzyl alcohol) in test tubes preloaded with NaCl. After acidification and centrifugation the solvent phase was transferred to a test tube preloaded with Na(2)SO(4), incubated for 30 min, centrifuged again, and evaporated in vacuum. The residue was mixed with N-methyl-N-trimethylsilyl-trifluoroacetamide (MSTFA) in acetonitrile, and injected into a GC-MS. When analyzing GBL, the salting-out step was omitted, and analysis was performed with a GC-FID apparatus. As revealed by the validation data this procedure is suitable for quantitative determination of GHB and its precursors in blood and/or urine samples. SN - 1872-6283 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/17658710/Determination_of_gamma_hydroxybutyrate__GHB__and_its_precursors_in_blood_and_urine_samples:_a_salting_out_approach_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0379-0738(07)00556-7 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -