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Frailty in older men: prevalence, progression, and relationship with mortality.
J Am Geriatr Soc. 2007 Aug; 55(8):1216-23.JA

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

To describe the association between frailty and health status, the progression of frailty, and the relationship between frailty and mortality in older men.

DESIGN

Cross-sectional and prospective cohort study.

SETTING

Six U.S. clinical centers.

PARTICIPANTS

Five thousand nine hundred ninety-three community-dwelling men aged 65 and older.

MEASUREMENTS

Frailty was defined as three or more of the following: sarcopenia (low appendicular skeletal mass adjusted for height and body fat), weakness (grip strength), self-reported exhaustion, low activity level, and slow walking speed. Prefrail men met one or two criteria; robust men had none. Follow-up averaged 4.7 years.

RESULTS

At baseline, 240 subjects (4.0%) were frail, 2,395 (40.0%) were prefrail, and 3,358 were robust (56.0%). Frail men were less healthy in most measures of self-reported health than prefrail or robust men. Frailty was somewhat more common in African Americans (6.6%) and Asians (5.8%) than Caucasians (3.8%). At the second visit, men who were frail at baseline tended to remain frail (24.2%) or die (37.1%) or were unable to complete the follow-up visit (26.2%); robust men tended to remain robust (54.4%). Frail men were approximately twice as likely to die as robust men (multivariate hazard ratio (MHR)=2.05, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.55-2.72). Mortality risk for frail men was greater in all weight categories than for nonfrail men but was highest for normal-weight frail men (MHR=2.39, 95% CI=1.51-3.79, P for interaction=.01). The relationship between frailty and mortality was somewhat stronger in younger men than older men (P for interaction=.01).

CONCLUSION

Frailty in older men is associated with poorer health and a greater risk of mortality.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Research Institute, California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco, California 94107-1762, USA. pcawthon@sfcc-cpmc.netNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Multicenter Study
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

17661960

Citation

Cawthon, Peggy M., et al. "Frailty in Older Men: Prevalence, Progression, and Relationship With Mortality." Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 55, no. 8, 2007, pp. 1216-23.
Cawthon PM, Marshall LM, Michael Y, et al. Frailty in older men: prevalence, progression, and relationship with mortality. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2007;55(8):1216-23.
Cawthon, P. M., Marshall, L. M., Michael, Y., Dam, T. T., Ensrud, K. E., Barrett-Connor, E., & Orwoll, E. S. (2007). Frailty in older men: prevalence, progression, and relationship with mortality. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 55(8), 1216-23.
Cawthon PM, et al. Frailty in Older Men: Prevalence, Progression, and Relationship With Mortality. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2007;55(8):1216-23. PubMed PMID: 17661960.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Frailty in older men: prevalence, progression, and relationship with mortality. AU - Cawthon,Peggy M, AU - Marshall,Lynn M, AU - Michael,Yvonne, AU - Dam,Thuy-Tien, AU - Ensrud,Kristine E, AU - Barrett-Connor,Elizabeth, AU - Orwoll,Eric S, AU - ,, PY - 2007/7/31/pubmed PY - 2007/10/3/medline PY - 2007/7/31/entrez SP - 1216 EP - 23 JF - Journal of the American Geriatrics Society JO - J Am Geriatr Soc VL - 55 IS - 8 N2 - OBJECTIVES: To describe the association between frailty and health status, the progression of frailty, and the relationship between frailty and mortality in older men. DESIGN: Cross-sectional and prospective cohort study. SETTING: Six U.S. clinical centers. PARTICIPANTS: Five thousand nine hundred ninety-three community-dwelling men aged 65 and older. MEASUREMENTS: Frailty was defined as three or more of the following: sarcopenia (low appendicular skeletal mass adjusted for height and body fat), weakness (grip strength), self-reported exhaustion, low activity level, and slow walking speed. Prefrail men met one or two criteria; robust men had none. Follow-up averaged 4.7 years. RESULTS: At baseline, 240 subjects (4.0%) were frail, 2,395 (40.0%) were prefrail, and 3,358 were robust (56.0%). Frail men were less healthy in most measures of self-reported health than prefrail or robust men. Frailty was somewhat more common in African Americans (6.6%) and Asians (5.8%) than Caucasians (3.8%). At the second visit, men who were frail at baseline tended to remain frail (24.2%) or die (37.1%) or were unable to complete the follow-up visit (26.2%); robust men tended to remain robust (54.4%). Frail men were approximately twice as likely to die as robust men (multivariate hazard ratio (MHR)=2.05, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.55-2.72). Mortality risk for frail men was greater in all weight categories than for nonfrail men but was highest for normal-weight frail men (MHR=2.39, 95% CI=1.51-3.79, P for interaction=.01). The relationship between frailty and mortality was somewhat stronger in younger men than older men (P for interaction=.01). CONCLUSION: Frailty in older men is associated with poorer health and a greater risk of mortality. SN - 0002-8614 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/17661960/Frailty_in_older_men:_prevalence_progression_and_relationship_with_mortality_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.2007.01259.x DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -