Influence of acclimation and cross-acclimation of metals on acute Cd toxicity and Cd uptake and distribution in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).Aquat Toxicol. 2007 Aug 30; 84(2):190-7.AT
The development of chronic metal toxicity models for fresh water fish is complicated by the physiological adjustments made by the animal during exposure which results in acclimation. This study examines the influence of a pre-exposure to a chronic sublethal waterborne metal on acclimation responses as well as the uptake and distribution of new metal into juvenile rainbow trout. In one series of tests, trout were exposed to either 20 or 60 microg/L Cu, or 150 microg/L Zn for a month in moderately hard water and then cross-acclimation responses to Cd were measured in 96 h LC(50) tests. Cu exposed trout showed a cross-acclimation response but Zn exposed trout did not. Using these results, a detailed examination of Cd uptake and tissue distribution in metal-acclimated trout was done. Trout were exposed to either 75 microg/L Cu or 3 microg/L Cd for 1 month to induce acclimation and subsequently, the uptake and distribution of new Cd was assessed in both Cd- and Cu-acclimated fish using (109)Cd. The pattern of accumulation of new metal was dramatically altered in acclimated fish. For example, in 3 h gill Cd binding experiments, Cd- and Cu-acclimated trout both had a higher capacity to accumulate new Cd but only Cu-acclimated fish showed a higher affinity for Cd compared to unexposed controls. Experiments measuring Cd uptake over 72 h at 3 microgCd/L showed that the Cd uptake rate was lower for Cd-acclimated fish compared to both Cu-acclimated fish and unexposed controls. The results demonstrate the phenomenon of cross-acclimation to Cd and that chronic sublethal exposure to one metal can alter the uptake and tissue distribution of another. Understanding how acclimation influences toxicity and bioaccumulation is important in the context of risk assessment. This study illustrates that knowledge of previous exposure conditions is essential, not only for the metal of concern, but also for other metals as well.