Role of nucleoid-associated proteins Hha and H-NS in expression of Salmonella enterica activators HilD, HilC, and RtsA required for cell invasion.J Bacteriol. 2007 Oct; 189(19):6882-90.JB
The coordinate expression of Salmonella enterica invasion genes on Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 is under the control of the complex circuits of regulation that involve the AraC/XylS family transcriptional activators HilD, HilC, and RtsA and nucleoid-associated proteins. Single-copy transcription fusions were used to assess the effects of nucleoid-associated proteins Hha and H-NS on hilD, hilC, and rtsA expression. The data show that all three genes, hilD, hilC, and rtsA, were repressed by H-NS and/or Hha. The repression of rtsA was the highest among tested genes. The level of rtsA-lac was equally elevated in hns and hha mutants and was further enhanced in the hns hha double mutant under low-osmolarity conditions. Electrophoretic mobility shift experiments showed that H-NS and Hha directly bind to the rtsA promoter. In addition to the negative control that was exerted by H-NS/Hha under low-osmolarity conditions, the homologous virulence activators HilD, HilC, and RtsA (Hil activators) induced rtsA-lac expression in a high-salt medium. A DNase footprinting assay of the rtsA promoter revealed one common DNA-binding site for all three Hil activators centered at position -54 relative to the transcriptional start site. In the absence of Hha and H-NS, however, osmoregulation of the rtsA promoter was lost, and Hil activators were not required for rtsA transcription. These results taken together suggest that the HilD, HilC, and RtsA proteins induce the transcription of the rtsA promoter by counteracting H-NS/Hha-mediated repression.