Protein seeding of gold nanoparticles and mechanism of glycation sensing.Nanomedicine. 2007 Sep; 3(3):208-14.N
The plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) synthesized on a protein template senses formation of advanced glycosylated end products (AGEs). A graded alteration of plasmon resonance (both the peak and intensity are affected) is observed as the glycation progresses. Transmission electron microscopy shows significant shift of the size distribution of GNPs in presence of glycation. The higher plasmon resonance is thus caused by increased formation of GNPs, which in turn is attributed to a larger number of smaller particles. To study the binding of the protein with the GNP, infrared (IR) spectroscopy and circular dichroism (CD) studies were undertaken. Whereas the CD studies confirmed the emergence of beta-structure and loss of alpha-helix, the IR data indicated glycation-induced alterations in the amide I region. The proposed sensor for formation of AGEs thus apparently operates by direct or indirect conjugation with amino groups. Incidentally, glycation and AGE formation are responsible for a number of diabetes-related clinical conditions, and the present approach could be adopted for use for a simple colorimetric assay for the AGEs.