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Quantitative comparisons of the acute neurotoxicity of toluene in rats and humans.
Toxicol Sci. 2007 Nov; 100(1):146-55.TS

Abstract

The behavioral and neurophysiological effects of acute exposure to toluene are the most thoroughly explored of all the hydrocarbon solvents. Behavioral effects have been experimentally studied in humans and other species, for example, rats. The existence of both rat and human dosimetric data offers the opportunity to quantitatively compare the relative sensitivity to acute toluene exposure. The purpose of this study was to fit dose-effect curves to existing data and to estimate the dose-equivalence equation (DEE) between rats and humans. The DEE gives the doses that produce the same magnitude of effect in the two species. Doses were brain concentrations of toluene estimated from physiologically based pharmacokinetic models. Human experiments measuring toluene effects on choice reaction time (CRT) were meta-analyzed. Rat studies employed various dependent variables: amplitude of visual-evoked potentials (VEPs), signal detection (SIGDET) accuracy (ACCU) and reaction time (RT), and escape-avoidance (ES-AV) behaviors. Comparison of dose-effect functions showed that human and rat sensitivity was practically the same for those two task regimens that exerted the least control over the behaviors being measured (VEP in rats and CRT in humans) and the sensitivity was progressively lower for SIGDET RT, SIGDET ACCU, and ES-AV behaviors in rats. These results suggested that the sensitivity to impairment by toluene depends on the strength of control over the measured behavior rather than on the species being tested. This interpretation suggests that (1) sensitivity to toluene would be equivalent in humans and rats if both species performed behaviors that were controlled to the same extent, (2) the most sensitive tests of neurobehavioral effects would be those in which least control is exerted on the behavior being measured, and (3) effects of toluene in humans may be estimated using the DEEs from rat studies despite differences in the amount of control exerted by the experimental regimen or differences in the behaviors under investigation.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Human Studies Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711, USA. benignus.vernon@epa.govNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Meta-Analysis
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

17698514

Citation

Benignus, Vernon A., et al. "Quantitative Comparisons of the Acute Neurotoxicity of Toluene in Rats and Humans." Toxicological Sciences : an Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology, vol. 100, no. 1, 2007, pp. 146-55.
Benignus VA, Boyes WK, Kenyon EM, et al. Quantitative comparisons of the acute neurotoxicity of toluene in rats and humans. Toxicol Sci. 2007;100(1):146-55.
Benignus, V. A., Boyes, W. K., Kenyon, E. M., & Bushnell, P. J. (2007). Quantitative comparisons of the acute neurotoxicity of toluene in rats and humans. Toxicological Sciences : an Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology, 100(1), 146-55.
Benignus VA, et al. Quantitative Comparisons of the Acute Neurotoxicity of Toluene in Rats and Humans. Toxicol Sci. 2007;100(1):146-55. PubMed PMID: 17698514.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Quantitative comparisons of the acute neurotoxicity of toluene in rats and humans. AU - Benignus,Vernon A, AU - Boyes,William K, AU - Kenyon,Elaina M, AU - Bushnell,Philip J, Y1 - 2007/08/13/ PY - 2007/8/19/pubmed PY - 2007/12/7/medline PY - 2007/8/19/entrez SP - 146 EP - 55 JF - Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology JO - Toxicol Sci VL - 100 IS - 1 N2 - The behavioral and neurophysiological effects of acute exposure to toluene are the most thoroughly explored of all the hydrocarbon solvents. Behavioral effects have been experimentally studied in humans and other species, for example, rats. The existence of both rat and human dosimetric data offers the opportunity to quantitatively compare the relative sensitivity to acute toluene exposure. The purpose of this study was to fit dose-effect curves to existing data and to estimate the dose-equivalence equation (DEE) between rats and humans. The DEE gives the doses that produce the same magnitude of effect in the two species. Doses were brain concentrations of toluene estimated from physiologically based pharmacokinetic models. Human experiments measuring toluene effects on choice reaction time (CRT) were meta-analyzed. Rat studies employed various dependent variables: amplitude of visual-evoked potentials (VEPs), signal detection (SIGDET) accuracy (ACCU) and reaction time (RT), and escape-avoidance (ES-AV) behaviors. Comparison of dose-effect functions showed that human and rat sensitivity was practically the same for those two task regimens that exerted the least control over the behaviors being measured (VEP in rats and CRT in humans) and the sensitivity was progressively lower for SIGDET RT, SIGDET ACCU, and ES-AV behaviors in rats. These results suggested that the sensitivity to impairment by toluene depends on the strength of control over the measured behavior rather than on the species being tested. This interpretation suggests that (1) sensitivity to toluene would be equivalent in humans and rats if both species performed behaviors that were controlled to the same extent, (2) the most sensitive tests of neurobehavioral effects would be those in which least control is exerted on the behavior being measured, and (3) effects of toluene in humans may be estimated using the DEEs from rat studies despite differences in the amount of control exerted by the experimental regimen or differences in the behaviors under investigation. SN - 1096-6080 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/17698514/Quantitative_comparisons_of_the_acute_neurotoxicity_of_toluene_in_rats_and_humans_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/toxsci/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/toxsci/kfm203 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -