Metabolic pathways of apolipoprotein B in heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia: studies with a [3H]leucine tracer.J Lipid Res. 1991 Nov; 32(11):1823-36.JL
The kinetics of apolipoprotein B (apoB) were measured in seven studies in heterozygous, familial hypercholesterolemic subjects (FH) and in five studies in normal subjects, using in vivo tracer kinetic methodology with a [3H]leucine tracer. Very low density (VLDL) and low density lipoproteins (LDL) were isolated ultracentrifugally and LDL was fractionated into high and low molecular weight subspecies. ApoB was isolated, its specific radioactivity was measured, and the kinetic data were analyzed by compartmental modeling using the SAAM computer program. The pathways of apoB metabolism differ in FH and normal subjects in two major respects. Normals secrete greater than 90% of apoB as VLDL, while one-third of apoB is secreted as intermediate density lipoprotein IDL/LDL in FH. Normals lose 40-50% of apoB from plasma as VLDL/IDL, while FH subjects lose none, metabolizing all of apoB to LDL. In FH, there is also the known prolongation of LDL residence time. The leucine tracer, biosynthetically incorporated into plasma apoB, permits distinguishing the separate pathways by which the metabolism of apoB is channeled. ApoB synthesis and secretion require 1.3 h. ApoB is secreted by three routes: 1) as large VLDL where it is metabolized by a delipidation chain; 2) as a rapidly metabolized VLDL fraction converted to LDL; and 3) as IDL or LDL. ApoB is metabolized along two pathways. The delipidation chain processes large VLDL to small VLDL, IDL, and LDL. The IDL pathway channels nascent, rapidly metabolized VLDL and IDL particles into LDL. It thus provides a fast pathway for the entrance of apoB tracer into LDL, while the delipidation pathway is a slower route for channeling apoB through VLDL into LDL. LDL apoB is derived in almost equal amounts from both pathways, which feed predominantly into large LDL. Small LDL is a product of large LDL, and the major loss of LDL-apoB is from small LDL. Two features of apoB metabolism in FH, the major secretory pathway through IDL and the absence of a catabolic loss of apoB from VLDL/IDL, greatly facilitate measuring the metabolic channeling of apoB into LDL.