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Effect of short-term stainless steel welding fume inhalation exposure on lung inflammation, injury, and defense responses in rats.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2007 Sep 15; 223(3):234-45.TA

Abstract

Many welders have experienced bronchitis, metal fume fever, lung function changes, and an increase in the incidence of lung infection. Questions remain regarding the possible mechanisms associated with the potential pulmonary effects of welding fume exposure. The objective was to assess the early effects of stainless steel (SS) welding fume inhalation on lung injury, inflammation, and defense responses. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to gas metal arc-SS welding fume at a concentration of 15 or 40 mg/m(3) x 3 h/day for 1, 3, or 10 days. The control group was exposed to filtered air. To assess lung defense responses, some animals were intratracheally inoculated with 5x10(4) Listeria monocytogenes 1 day after the last exposure. Welding particles were collected during exposure, and elemental composition and particle size were determined. At 1, 4, 6, 11, 14, and 30 days after the final exposure, parameters of lung injury (lactate dehydrogenase and albumin) and inflammation (PMN influx) were measured in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In addition, particle-induced effects on pulmonary clearance of bacteria and macrophage function were assessed. SS particles were composed of Fe, Cr, Mn, and Ni. Particle size distribution analysis indicated the mass median aerodynamic diameter of the generated fume to be 0.255 microm. Parameters of lung injury were significantly elevated at all time points post-exposure compared to controls except for 30 days. Interestingly, no significant difference in lung PMNs was observed between the SS and control groups at 1, 4, and 6 days post-exposure. After 6 days post-exposure, a dramatic increase in lung PMNs was observed in the SS group compared to air controls. Lung bacteria clearance and macrophage function were reduced and immune and inflammatory cytokines were altered in the SS group. In summary, short-term exposure of rats to SS welding fume caused significant lung damage and suppressed lung defense responses to bacterial infection, but had a delayed effect on pulmonary inflammation. Additional chronic inhalation studies are needed to further examine the lung effects associated with SS welding fume exposure.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Pathology and Physiology Research Branch, Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 1095 Willowdale Road, Mailstop 2015, Morgantown, WV 26505, USA. jga6@cdc.govNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

17706736

Citation

Antonini, James M., et al. "Effect of Short-term Stainless Steel Welding Fume Inhalation Exposure On Lung Inflammation, Injury, and Defense Responses in Rats." Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, vol. 223, no. 3, 2007, pp. 234-45.
Antonini JM, Stone S, Roberts JR, et al. Effect of short-term stainless steel welding fume inhalation exposure on lung inflammation, injury, and defense responses in rats. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2007;223(3):234-45.
Antonini, J. M., Stone, S., Roberts, J. R., Chen, B., Schwegler-Berry, D., Afshari, A. A., & Frazer, D. G. (2007). Effect of short-term stainless steel welding fume inhalation exposure on lung inflammation, injury, and defense responses in rats. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 223(3), 234-45.
Antonini JM, et al. Effect of Short-term Stainless Steel Welding Fume Inhalation Exposure On Lung Inflammation, Injury, and Defense Responses in Rats. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2007 Sep 15;223(3):234-45. PubMed PMID: 17706736.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Effect of short-term stainless steel welding fume inhalation exposure on lung inflammation, injury, and defense responses in rats. AU - Antonini,James M, AU - Stone,Sam, AU - Roberts,Jenny R, AU - Chen,Bean, AU - Schwegler-Berry,Diane, AU - Afshari,Aliakbar A, AU - Frazer,David G, Y1 - 2007/07/06/ PY - 2007/05/11/received PY - 2007/06/11/revised PY - 2007/06/11/accepted PY - 2007/8/21/pubmed PY - 2007/10/19/medline PY - 2007/8/21/entrez SP - 234 EP - 45 JF - Toxicology and applied pharmacology JO - Toxicol Appl Pharmacol VL - 223 IS - 3 N2 - Many welders have experienced bronchitis, metal fume fever, lung function changes, and an increase in the incidence of lung infection. Questions remain regarding the possible mechanisms associated with the potential pulmonary effects of welding fume exposure. The objective was to assess the early effects of stainless steel (SS) welding fume inhalation on lung injury, inflammation, and defense responses. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to gas metal arc-SS welding fume at a concentration of 15 or 40 mg/m(3) x 3 h/day for 1, 3, or 10 days. The control group was exposed to filtered air. To assess lung defense responses, some animals were intratracheally inoculated with 5x10(4) Listeria monocytogenes 1 day after the last exposure. Welding particles were collected during exposure, and elemental composition and particle size were determined. At 1, 4, 6, 11, 14, and 30 days after the final exposure, parameters of lung injury (lactate dehydrogenase and albumin) and inflammation (PMN influx) were measured in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In addition, particle-induced effects on pulmonary clearance of bacteria and macrophage function were assessed. SS particles were composed of Fe, Cr, Mn, and Ni. Particle size distribution analysis indicated the mass median aerodynamic diameter of the generated fume to be 0.255 microm. Parameters of lung injury were significantly elevated at all time points post-exposure compared to controls except for 30 days. Interestingly, no significant difference in lung PMNs was observed between the SS and control groups at 1, 4, and 6 days post-exposure. After 6 days post-exposure, a dramatic increase in lung PMNs was observed in the SS group compared to air controls. Lung bacteria clearance and macrophage function were reduced and immune and inflammatory cytokines were altered in the SS group. In summary, short-term exposure of rats to SS welding fume caused significant lung damage and suppressed lung defense responses to bacterial infection, but had a delayed effect on pulmonary inflammation. Additional chronic inhalation studies are needed to further examine the lung effects associated with SS welding fume exposure. SN - 0041-008X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/17706736/Effect_of_short_term_stainless_steel_welding_fume_inhalation_exposure_on_lung_inflammation_injury_and_defense_responses_in_rats_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0041-008X(07)00266-9 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -