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Depressive symptoms and cognitive change in older Mexican Americans.
J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol. 2007 Sep; 20(3):145-52.JG

Abstract

To examine the association between presence of clinically relevant depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale [CES-D] score >or= 16) and subsequent cognitive function (Mini-Mental State Examination [MMSE]) over a 7-year period in older Mexican Americans, a prospective cohort study was performed. Five south-western states contributed data to the Hispanic Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly. Participants included 2812 noninstitutionalized Mexican Americans aged 65 and older followed from 1993-1994 until 2000-2001. Cognitive change was assessed using the MMSE at baseline and at 2, 5, and 7 years of follow-up. Independent variables were sociodemographics, CES-D >or= 16, medical conditions (hypertension, diabetes, coronary artery disease, and stroke), and activities of daily living (ADL) status. A general linear mixed model was used to estimate cognitive change. There was a cross-sectional association between CES-D >or= 16 and lower MMSE score (estimate = -0.48; standard error [SE] = 0.15; P < .01), independent of age, gender, education, marital status, time of interview, ADL limitations, vision impairment, and medical conditions. In the fully adjusted longitudinal model, subjects with clinically relevant depressive symptoms had a greater decline in MMSE score over 7 years than those without clinically relevant depressive symptoms (estimate = -0.17; SE = 0.05; P < .001), adjusting for sociodemographics, ADL and medical conditions. Each point increase in the CES-D score was associated with a decline of 0.010 point in MMSE score per year (SE = 0.002; P < 0.0001), adjusting for relevant confounders. Presence of clinically relevant depressive symptoms was associated with subsequent decline in cognitive function over 7 years in older Mexican Americans, independent of demographic and health factors.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Division of Geriatrics, Department of Internal Medicine University of Texas Medical Branch, TX 77555-0460, USA. muraji@utmb.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

17712097

Citation

Raji, Mukaila A., et al. "Depressive Symptoms and Cognitive Change in Older Mexican Americans." Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology, vol. 20, no. 3, 2007, pp. 145-52.
Raji MA, Reyes-Ortiz CA, Kuo YF, et al. Depressive symptoms and cognitive change in older Mexican Americans. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol. 2007;20(3):145-52.
Raji, M. A., Reyes-Ortiz, C. A., Kuo, Y. F., Markides, K. S., & Ottenbacher, K. J. (2007). Depressive symptoms and cognitive change in older Mexican Americans. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology, 20(3), 145-52.
Raji MA, et al. Depressive Symptoms and Cognitive Change in Older Mexican Americans. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol. 2007;20(3):145-52. PubMed PMID: 17712097.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Depressive symptoms and cognitive change in older Mexican Americans. AU - Raji,Mukaila A, AU - Reyes-Ortiz,Carlos A, AU - Kuo,Yong-Fang, AU - Markides,Kyriakos S, AU - Ottenbacher,Kenneth J, PY - 2007/8/23/pubmed PY - 2007/12/12/medline PY - 2007/8/23/entrez SP - 145 EP - 52 JF - Journal of geriatric psychiatry and neurology JO - J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol VL - 20 IS - 3 N2 - To examine the association between presence of clinically relevant depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale [CES-D] score >or= 16) and subsequent cognitive function (Mini-Mental State Examination [MMSE]) over a 7-year period in older Mexican Americans, a prospective cohort study was performed. Five south-western states contributed data to the Hispanic Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly. Participants included 2812 noninstitutionalized Mexican Americans aged 65 and older followed from 1993-1994 until 2000-2001. Cognitive change was assessed using the MMSE at baseline and at 2, 5, and 7 years of follow-up. Independent variables were sociodemographics, CES-D >or= 16, medical conditions (hypertension, diabetes, coronary artery disease, and stroke), and activities of daily living (ADL) status. A general linear mixed model was used to estimate cognitive change. There was a cross-sectional association between CES-D >or= 16 and lower MMSE score (estimate = -0.48; standard error [SE] = 0.15; P < .01), independent of age, gender, education, marital status, time of interview, ADL limitations, vision impairment, and medical conditions. In the fully adjusted longitudinal model, subjects with clinically relevant depressive symptoms had a greater decline in MMSE score over 7 years than those without clinically relevant depressive symptoms (estimate = -0.17; SE = 0.05; P < .001), adjusting for sociodemographics, ADL and medical conditions. Each point increase in the CES-D score was associated with a decline of 0.010 point in MMSE score per year (SE = 0.002; P < 0.0001), adjusting for relevant confounders. Presence of clinically relevant depressive symptoms was associated with subsequent decline in cognitive function over 7 years in older Mexican Americans, independent of demographic and health factors. SN - 0891-9887 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/17712097/Depressive_symptoms_and_cognitive_change_in_older_Mexican_Americans_ L2 - https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0891988707303604?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&amp;rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&amp;rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -