Phenytoin teratogenicity and midgestational pharmacokinetics in mice.Teratology. 1991 Nov; 44(5):497-505.T
Mice of the A/J and C57BL/6J (C57) strains were dosed with phenytoin (PHT) every 48 hr throughout pregnancy by gastric intubation to test the hypothesis that maternal plasma PHT concentration may be the significant factor in determining PHT reproductive and developmental toxicity. Serial serum samples were obtained from each mouse from gestation day (GD) 10-GD 12 for determination of individual dam PHT pharmacokinetics. Maximum PHT concentration and PHT AUC (area under-the-time-concentration curve) were regressed to laparotomy and fetal evaluation endpoints to determine whether significant association existed. Although serum PHT concentrations exceeded levels associated with teratogenicity (greater than 10 micrograms/ml), few major malformations were induced in either strain. However, in the A/J strain, there was a significant increased incidence of hydrocephaly and open eyelid. Regression of pharmacokinetic parameters with embryo and maternal endpoints indicated significant associations between gestational weight gain and maximum concentration measured (Cmax) or AUC in both strains. This association was also found for fetal weight in the C57 strain. In the A/J strain, the induction of decreased ossification of the sternebrae was also associated with maternal PHT concentration; however, linear regression of hydrocephaly and open eyelid to PHT concentration was not statistically significant. These results suggest that maternal plasma PHT concentration may be a quantifiable determinant of certain aspects of PHT developmental toxicity in the mouse.