Detection of anti-endomysial and anti-tissue transglutaminase autoantibodies in media following culture of oral biopsies from patients with untreated coeliac disease.Dig Liver Dis 2007; 39(10):911-6DL
BACKGROUND AND AIMS
Coeliac disease is an autoimmune disorder characterised by high levels of anti-endomysial and anti-tissue transglutaminase autoantibodies in sera and media of cultured intestinal mucosa biopsies from affected patients. In this study, we wished to investigate whether anti-endomysial and anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies can also be detected in culture media of oral mucosa specimens, and whether the mouth can be used as an area of immunological testing for coeliac disease.
Small intestine and cheek biopsy samples taken from 16 patients with active coeliac disease and from 11 controls were cultured in vitro for 48 h at 37 degrees C in presence of medium alone. Anti-endomysial and anti-tissue transglutaminase were detected in sera and in supernatants of these cultured biopsy samples by indirect immunofluorescence and enzyme immunoassay (EIA), respectively.
Anti-endomysial and anti-tissue transglutaminase were positive in sera of 15/16 coeliac disease patients. Culture media of intestinal mucosa samples from 14/16 coeliac disease patients were anti-endomysial positive, while the same antibodies were positive in supernatants of cultured oral mucosa samples from 15/16 coeliac disease patients. Anti-tissue transglutaminase were positive in both intestinal and oral culture media of 15/16 coeliac disease patients. Neither anti-endomysial nor anti-tissue transglutaminase were found in sera or in culture supernatants of both intestinal and oral biopsy samples from 11 controls.
Our study suggests a new immunological site to detect the pathognomonic autoantibodies of coeliac disease and confirms that the mouth is involved in this illness.