Bismuth film electrode for anodic stripping voltammetric determination of tin.Anal Chim Acta. 2006 Nov 24; 580(2):244-50.AC
The bismuth film electrode (BiFE), in combination with anodic stripping voltammetry, offers convenient measurement of low concentrations of tin. The procedure involves simultaneous in situ formation of the bismuth film electrode on a glassy carbon substrate electrode, together with electrochemical deposition of tin, in a non-deaerated model solution containing bismuth ions, catechol as complexing agent and the metal analyte, followed by an anodic stripping scan. The BiFE is characterized by an attractive electroanalytical performance, with two distinct voltammetric stripping signals corresponding to tin, accompanied with low background contributions. Several experimental parameters were optimized, such as concentration of bismuth ions and catechol, deposition potential, deposition time and pH of the model solution. In addition, a critical comparison is given with bare glassy carbon and mercury film electrodes, revealing the superior characteristics of BiFE for measurement of tin. BiFE exhibited highly linear behavior in the examined concentration range from 1 to 100 microg L(-1) of tin (R2=0.997), an LoD of 0.26 microg L(-1) tin, and good reproducibility with a calculated R.S.D. of 7.3% for 10 microg L(-1) tin (n=10). As an example, the practical applicability of BiFE was tested with the measurement of tin in a real sample of seawater.