Prevention of stone disease.Urol Int 2007; 79 Suppl 1:37-46UI
In recent years stone disease has become more widespread in developed countries. At present the prevalence is 5.2 and 15% of men and 6% of women are affected. The increase is linked to changes in lifestyle, eating patterns and obesity which has become very common. The 'metabolic syndrome' includes all the diseases, e.g. hypertension, lipid imbalances, type 2 diabetes mellitus, gout and cardiovascular disease, which are concomitant in the majority of stone formers. Dietary patterns, besides leading to stone formation, also determine stone chemistry. With a diet that is rich in oxalates, calcium oxalate will constitute 75% of stones, struvite 10-20%, uric acid 5-6% and cystine 1%. As approximately 50% of patients with stones suffer recurrences, metabolic and/or pharmacological prophylaxis is recommended.