The importance of polymerization and galloylation for the antiproliferative properties of procyanidin-rich natural extracts.FEBS J. 2007 Sep; 274(18):4802-11.FJ
Grape (Vitis vinifera) and pine (Pinus pinaster) bark extracts are widely used as nutritional supplements. Procyanidin-rich fractions from grape and pine bark extract showing different mean degrees of polymerization, percentage of galloylation (percentage of gallate esters) and reactive oxygen species-scavenging capacity were tested on HT29 human colon cancer cells. We observed that the most efficient fractions in inhibiting cell proliferation, arresting the cell cycle in G(2) phase and inducing apoptosis were the grape fractions with the highest percentage of galloylation and mean degree of polymerization. Additionally, the antiproliferative effects of grape fractions were consistent with their oxygen radical-scavenging capacity and their ability to trigger DNA condensation-fragmentation.