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The diverse CB1 and CB2 receptor pharmacology of three plant cannabinoids: delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and delta9-tetrahydrocannabivarin.

Abstract

Cannabis sativa is the source of a unique set of compounds known collectively as plant cannabinoids or phytocannabinoids. This review focuses on the manner with which three of these compounds, (-)-trans-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC), (-)-cannabidiol (CBD) and (-)-trans-delta9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (delta9-THCV), interact with cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors. Delta9-THC, the main psychotropic constituent of cannabis, is a CB1 and CB2 receptor partial agonist and in line with classical pharmacology, the responses it elicits appear to be strongly influenced both by the expression level and signalling efficiency of cannabinoid receptors and by ongoing endogenous cannabinoid release. CBD displays unexpectedly high potency as an antagonist of CB1/CB2 receptor agonists in CB1- and CB2-expressing cells or tissues, the manner with which it interacts with CB2 receptors providing a possible explanation for its ability to inhibit evoked immune cell migration. Delta9-THCV behaves as a potent CB2 receptor partial agonist in vitro. In contrast, it antagonizes cannabinoid receptor agonists in CB1-expressing tissues. This it does with relatively high potency and in a manner that is both tissue and ligand dependent. Delta9-THCV also interacts with CB1 receptors when administered in vivo, behaving either as a CB1 antagonist or, at higher doses, as a CB1 receptor agonist. Brief mention is also made in this review, first of the production by delta9-THC of pharmacodynamic tolerance, second of current knowledge about the extent to which delta9-THC, CBD and delta9-THCV interact with pharmacological targets other than CB1 or CB2 receptors, and third of actual and potential therapeutic applications for each of these cannabinoids.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    School of Medical Sciences, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK. rgp@abdn.ac.uk

    Source

    British journal of pharmacology 153:2 2008 Jan pg 199-215

    MeSH

    Animals
    Cannabidiol
    Dronabinol
    Drug Tolerance
    Humans
    Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB1
    Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB2
    Synaptic Transmission

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    17828291

    Citation

    Pertwee, R G.. "The Diverse CB1 and CB2 Receptor Pharmacology of Three Plant Cannabinoids: Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, Cannabidiol and Delta9-tetrahydrocannabivarin." British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 153, no. 2, 2008, pp. 199-215.
    Pertwee RG. The diverse CB1 and CB2 receptor pharmacology of three plant cannabinoids: delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and delta9-tetrahydrocannabivarin. Br J Pharmacol. 2008;153(2):199-215.
    Pertwee, R. G. (2008). The diverse CB1 and CB2 receptor pharmacology of three plant cannabinoids: delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and delta9-tetrahydrocannabivarin. British Journal of Pharmacology, 153(2), pp. 199-215.
    Pertwee RG. The Diverse CB1 and CB2 Receptor Pharmacology of Three Plant Cannabinoids: Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, Cannabidiol and Delta9-tetrahydrocannabivarin. Br J Pharmacol. 2008;153(2):199-215. PubMed PMID: 17828291.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - The diverse CB1 and CB2 receptor pharmacology of three plant cannabinoids: delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and delta9-tetrahydrocannabivarin. A1 - Pertwee,R G, Y1 - 2007/09/10/ PY - 2007/9/11/pubmed PY - 2008/4/3/medline PY - 2007/9/11/entrez SP - 199 EP - 215 JF - British journal of pharmacology JO - Br. J. Pharmacol. VL - 153 IS - 2 N2 - Cannabis sativa is the source of a unique set of compounds known collectively as plant cannabinoids or phytocannabinoids. This review focuses on the manner with which three of these compounds, (-)-trans-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC), (-)-cannabidiol (CBD) and (-)-trans-delta9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (delta9-THCV), interact with cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors. Delta9-THC, the main psychotropic constituent of cannabis, is a CB1 and CB2 receptor partial agonist and in line with classical pharmacology, the responses it elicits appear to be strongly influenced both by the expression level and signalling efficiency of cannabinoid receptors and by ongoing endogenous cannabinoid release. CBD displays unexpectedly high potency as an antagonist of CB1/CB2 receptor agonists in CB1- and CB2-expressing cells or tissues, the manner with which it interacts with CB2 receptors providing a possible explanation for its ability to inhibit evoked immune cell migration. Delta9-THCV behaves as a potent CB2 receptor partial agonist in vitro. In contrast, it antagonizes cannabinoid receptor agonists in CB1-expressing tissues. This it does with relatively high potency and in a manner that is both tissue and ligand dependent. Delta9-THCV also interacts with CB1 receptors when administered in vivo, behaving either as a CB1 antagonist or, at higher doses, as a CB1 receptor agonist. Brief mention is also made in this review, first of the production by delta9-THC of pharmacodynamic tolerance, second of current knowledge about the extent to which delta9-THC, CBD and delta9-THCV interact with pharmacological targets other than CB1 or CB2 receptors, and third of actual and potential therapeutic applications for each of these cannabinoids. SN - 0007-1188 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/17828291/The_diverse_CB1_and_CB2_receptor_pharmacology_of_three_plant_cannabinoids:_delta9_tetrahydrocannabinol_cannabidiol_and_delta9_tetrahydrocannabivarin_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.bjp.0707442 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -