Increased cyclooxygenase expression and thymine dimer formation after repeated exposures of humans to low doses of solar simulated radiation.Exp Dermatol. 2007 Oct; 16(10):837-43.ED
The impact of repeated doses of solar simulated radiation (SSR) has not been evaluated, particularly to determine if photoadaptation and photoprotection develop over time. In this study, erythema, pigmentation, cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and 2 expression and thymine dimer (dTT) formation were evaluated in the skin of irradiated subjects of phototype II or III. Groups of 7-10 volunteers were whole-body irradiated with a low dose of SSR on each of 10 consecutive days followed by a single erythemal ultraviolet B (UVB) dose on a small body area, or irradiated only with the single erythemal UVB dose on a small body area, or irradiated with the low dose of SSR on each of 30 consecutive days, or were unirradiated. Erythema and pigmentation were measured 24 h after the final SSR or UVB, and skin biopsies collected for the assessment of COX(+) cells and dTT(+) nuclei. The repeated SSR exposures induced a small increase in pigmentation without erythema, and were slightly protective against the erythemal effects of the subsequent high UVB dose. The number of COX-1(+) and 2(+) cells increased as a result of 10-days SSR and rose still further after 30-days SSR, indicating that photoadaptation had not developed. The SSR exposures did not result in any protection against the further increase in COX-1 and 2 expression caused by the erythemal UVB dose. In contrast, for dTT formation, the repeated SSR exposures led to a limited degree of both photoadaptation and photoprotection.