Variability in the clinical expression of Parkinson's disease.J Neurol Sci. 2008 Mar 15; 266(1-2):197-203.JN
Parkinsonism is a clinical syndrome characterized by bradykinesia, hypo-/akinesia, muscular rigidity, and resting tremor, mainly caused by Parkinson's disease (PD). Symptoms of PD are due to a progressive loss of nigral neurons causing striatal dopaminergic denervation. However, nigral degeneration is only a part of the underlying synucleinopathy, and clinical symptoms go far beyond motor parkinsonism. Olfactory disturbances, fatigue, pain, autonomic dysfunction, sleep fragmentation, depression, and dementia with or without psychosis are frequently seen. The variability in the expression of these signs and symptoms, as discussed in this paper, might be explained by the specific topographical sequence of the pathology, depending on the extent and progression of the degenerative process at defined sites. Better insight in the clinicopathological correlations of this disease may help to further develop early diagnosis and adequate therapeutic strategies.