Menstrual migraine: clinical and therapeutical aspects.Expert Rev Neurother. 2007 Sep; 7(9):1105-20.ER
Estrogens fluctuations, particularly their premenstrual fall, are currently regarded as the main triggers of menstrual migraine (MM). MM presents in two clinical forms: pure MM, where attacks are confined to the perimenstrual period (PMP), and menstrually related migraine, where attacks always occur during, but are not confined to, the PMP. MM episodes are usually longer, more intense, more disabling and more refractory than nonmenstrual attacks. Acute management of MM should initially be abortive and primarily sought with triptans. If this fails, short-term perimenstrual prophylaxis with NSAIDs, coxibs, triptans or ergotamine derivatives can be considered. Hormone manipulations, mainly application of percutaneous estradiol gel in PMP or administration of oral contraceptives in extended cycles, constitute an alternative approach for nonresponders.