Dietary patterns associated with vitamin/mineral supplement use and smoking among women of the E3N-EPIC cohort.Eur J Clin Nutr 2009; 63(1):39-47EJ
An understanding of the relationships between dietary habits and supplement use or smoking is useful for aetiological studies and surveillance purposes. The objective of this study is to describe dietary patterns associated with vitamin/mineral supplement use and smoking habits in French women.
Scores for dietary patterns were obtained by factor analysis in 64,252 women from the French E3N-EPIC cohort. The association with supplement and tobacco use was investigated by logistic regression analysis.
We identified three dietary patterns: 'processed meat/starchy foods' (fast foods, processed meat, rice/pasta/semolina and cakes and few vegetables); 'fruit/vegetables' (fruits, vegetables, seafood, vegetable oils and yoghurt); and 'alcohol/meat products' (alcohol, meat and meat products, and coffee, and few fruits and soup). Supplement use was positively associated with the fruit/vegetables pattern (multivariate OR for quartile 4 versus 1 (OR(4))=1.55, 95% confidence interval: 1.47-1.63), and inversely associated with the processed meat/starchy foods (OR(4)=0.84; 0.80-0.89) and alcohol/meat products (OR(4)=0.69; 0.66-0.73) patterns (P trend for all associations <0.0001). As compared with never smoking, current smoking was inversely associated with the fruit/vegetables pattern (OR(4)=0.85; 0.78-0.92), while former smoking was positively associated with the fruit/vegetables pattern (OR(4)=1.32; 1.25-1.40); both current and former smoking were inversely associated with the processed meat/starchy foods pattern (OR(4)=0.57; 0.53-0.62 and 0.64; 0.60-0.67, respectively); whereas current and former smoking were both strongly positively associated with the alcohol/meat products pattern (OR(4)=5.78; 5.26-6.36 and 2.03; 1.91-2.15, respectively); P trend for all associations was <0.001.
Supplement use and smoking are strongly associated with dietary patterns.