Ginsenoside Re reduces insulin resistance through inhibition of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase and nuclear factor-kappaB.Mol Endocrinol. 2008 Jan; 22(1):186-95.ME
Ginsenoside Re (Re), a compound derived from Panax ginseng, shows an antidiabetic effect. However, the molecular basis of its action remains unknown. We investigated insulin signaling and the antiinflammatory effect by Re in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and in high-fat diet (HFD) rats to dissect its anti-hyperglycemic mechanism. Glucose uptake was measured in 3T3-L1 cells and glucose infusion rate determined by clamp in HFD rats. The insulin signaling cascade, including insulin receptor (IR) beta-subunit, IR substrate-1, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, Akt and Akt substrate of 160 kDa, and glucose transporter-4 translocation are examined. Furthermore, c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK), MAPK, and nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB signaling cascades were also assessed. The results show Re increases glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 cells and glucose infusion rate in HFD rats. The activation of insulin signaling by Re is initiated at IR substrate-1 and further passes on through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and downstream signaling cascades. Moreover, Re demonstrates an impressive suppression of JNK and NF-kappaB activation and inhibitor of NF-kappaBalpha degradation. In conclusion, Re reduces insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and HFD rats through inhibition of JNK and NF-kappaB activation.