Schooling without learning: thirty years of cheating in high school.Adolescence. 1991 Winter; 26(104):839-47.A
A survey instrument, developed in 1968 and administered to 1,629 high school students in 1969, 1,100 students in 1979, and 1,291 students in 1989, asked them to respond to items regarding the following: (1) the amount of cheating believed going on, (2) who was most guilty, (3) reasons given for cheating, (4) the courses in which most cheating occurred, (5) how to punish cheaters and by whom, (6) beliefs regarding dishonesty in society, and (7) confessions of their own dishonest behaviors in school. Between 1969 and 1989, student responses reflected increasingly pessimistic opinions about dishonesty in school and society. Fear of failure remained the most common reason for cheating. Math and science were the courses in which cheating most often occurred. The home was considered the best place and school the worst place to inculcate honesty. Over the three decades covered by this study, dishonesty was viewed as increasingly necessary, more people believed advertising was suspect, and success in business was attributed to fraudulent activities. More students admitted to cheating on tests and homework. More parents were not aiding and abetting students in avoidance of school rules. Polls, studies, and reports recently published by state, federal, and private agencies appear to confirm these findings.