Prostate cancer prevention: past, present, and future.Cancer 2007; 110(9):1889-99C
Prostate cancer is the most common male malignancy and the second or third leading cause of cancer death among men in the West. The descriptive epidemiology of prostate cancer suggests that it is a preventable disease. Prevention has the theoretical advantage of not only saving lives, but also reduce the morbidity of radical prostate cancer therapy. This article reviews the past, present, and future of prostate cancer prevention. In particular, the evidence and scientific data of a variety of prevention strategies are reviewed. Strategies reviewed include dietary fat reduction and supplementation with vitamins D and E, and selenium. Dietary intake of soy, green tea, and tomato-rich products (lycopene) are also reviewed. Data regarding pharmacological intervention with cyclo-oxygenease inhibitors, antiestrogens, and in particular 5-alpha reductase inhibitors are reviewed. The results of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial including the controversy surrounding higher-grade cancers among men randomized to finasteride are also summarized. Finally, a variety of trial designs as well as a roster of current phase 2 trials are presented. Probably no cancer is being investigated more thoroughly in the context of prevention as prostate cancer in 2007. Definitive answers to pivotal phase 3 trials will be available in the coming 2 to 7 years.