Fruits, vegetables, soy foods and breast cancer in pre- and postmenopausal Korean women: a case-control study.Int J Vitam Nutr Res 2007; 77(2):130-41IJ
We carried out a case-control study to examine the relationship between fruits, vegetables, and soy foods intake with breast cancer risk in Korean women. Incident cases (n = 359) were identified through cancer biopsies and hospital-based controls (n = 708) were selected in the same hospitals. Subjects were asked to indicate usual dietary habits, which were assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (98 items). Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated by unconditional logistic regression after adjustment for additional confounding factors according to the menopausal status. High grape intake showed an inverse association of breast cancer in postmenopausal women (OR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.35-0.95; p for trend = 0.05). High tomato intake was associated with reduced breast cancer risk in premenopausal women (OR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.38-0.89, p for trend = 0.04). In postmenopausal women, green pepper intake showed an inverse association of breast cancer risk (OR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.43-0.96, p for trend = 0.03). High soybean intake showed an inverse association of breast cancer in postmenopausal women (OR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.34-0.89, p for trend = 0.02). Our study suggests that high intake of some fruits, vegetables, and soybeans may be associated with a reduced breast cancer risk.