Pos-infectious bronchiolitis obliterans in children.Rev Port Pneumol 2007 Jul-Aug; 13(4):495-509RP
Bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) is a rare disease in immunocompetent children that usually occurs after infection of the lower airways. While a diagnosis of BO was usually confirmed by lung biopsy, identification of prior lung lesion plus a typical clinical course and a suggestive chest X-ray and CT scan have replaced the need for more invasive procedures. The authors reviewed the clinical records of 10 BO patients, followed in the Outpatients Paediatric Pulmonology Unit from January 1997 to December 2002, to identify the most common aetiology, clinical and radiological profiles, treatment and course. All patients maintained cough and/or wheezing after the initial acute episode. 80% had failure to thrive at the time of the diagnosis, mean age 16 months. Viral pneumonia was the main initial event (5 adenovirus, 3 respiratory syncytial virus, 1 parainfluenza virus, 1 unknown). Lung biopsies were not performed as clinical and radiological presentations were typical of BO. The follow-up (mean 36 months) revealed clinical resolution in 3 children and persistent symptoms in 6. One patient had progressive respiratory failure and died. Prompt recognition of the diagnosis with supportive treatment that included oxygen therapy and an aggressive nutrition plan helped to improve the clinical state of the children.