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Expression pattern of three-finger toxin and phospholipase A2 genes in the venom glands of two sea snakes, Lapemis curtus and Acalyptophis peronii: comparison of evolution of these toxins in land snakes, sea kraits and sea snakes.
BMC Evol Biol. 2007 Sep 27; 7:175.BE

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Snake venom composition varies widely both among closely related species and within the same species, based on ecological variables. In terrestrial snakes, such variation has been proposed to be due to snakes' diet. Land snakes target various prey species including insects (arthropods), lizards (reptiles), frogs and toads (amphibians), birds (aves), and rodents (mammals), whereas sea snakes target a single vertebrate class (fishes) and often specialize on specific types of fish. It is therefore interesting to examine the evolution of toxins in sea snake venoms compared to that of land snakes.

RESULTS

Here we describe the expression of toxin genes in the venom glands of two sea snakes, Lapemis curtus (Spine-bellied Sea Snake) and Acalyptophis peronii (Horned Sea Snake), two members of a large adaptive radiation which occupy very different ecological niches. We constructed cDNA libraries from their venom glands and sequenced 214 and 192 clones, respectively. Our data show that despite their explosive evolutionary radiation, there is very little variability in the three-finger toxin (3FTx) as well as the phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzymes, the two main constituents of Lapemis curtus and Acalyptophis peronii venom. To understand the evolutionary trends among land snakes, sea snakes and sea kraits, pairwise genetic distances (intraspecific and interspecific) of 3FTx and PLA2 sequences were calculated. Results show that these proteins appear to be highly conserved in sea snakes in contrast to land snakes or sea kraits, despite their extremely divergent and adaptive ecological radiation.

CONCLUSION

Based on these results, we suggest that streamlining in habitat and diet in sea snakes has possibly kept their toxin genes conserved, suggesting the idea that prey composition and diet breadth may contribute to the diversity and evolution of venom components.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Protein Science and Conservation Ecology Laboratories, Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, 117543, Singapore. susanta2001@yahoo.comNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

17900344

Citation

Pahari, Susanta, et al. "Expression Pattern of Three-finger Toxin and Phospholipase A2 Genes in the Venom Glands of Two Sea Snakes, Lapemis Curtus and Acalyptophis Peronii: Comparison of Evolution of These Toxins in Land Snakes, Sea Kraits and Sea Snakes." BMC Evolutionary Biology, vol. 7, 2007, p. 175.
Pahari S, Bickford D, Fry BG, et al. Expression pattern of three-finger toxin and phospholipase A2 genes in the venom glands of two sea snakes, Lapemis curtus and Acalyptophis peronii: comparison of evolution of these toxins in land snakes, sea kraits and sea snakes. BMC Evol Biol. 2007;7:175.
Pahari, S., Bickford, D., Fry, B. G., & Kini, R. M. (2007). Expression pattern of three-finger toxin and phospholipase A2 genes in the venom glands of two sea snakes, Lapemis curtus and Acalyptophis peronii: comparison of evolution of these toxins in land snakes, sea kraits and sea snakes. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 7, 175.
Pahari S, et al. Expression Pattern of Three-finger Toxin and Phospholipase A2 Genes in the Venom Glands of Two Sea Snakes, Lapemis Curtus and Acalyptophis Peronii: Comparison of Evolution of These Toxins in Land Snakes, Sea Kraits and Sea Snakes. BMC Evol Biol. 2007 Sep 27;7:175. PubMed PMID: 17900344.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Expression pattern of three-finger toxin and phospholipase A2 genes in the venom glands of two sea snakes, Lapemis curtus and Acalyptophis peronii: comparison of evolution of these toxins in land snakes, sea kraits and sea snakes. AU - Pahari,Susanta, AU - Bickford,David, AU - Fry,Bryan G, AU - Kini,R Manjunatha, Y1 - 2007/09/27/ PY - 2007/04/20/received PY - 2007/09/27/accepted PY - 2007/9/29/pubmed PY - 2008/1/26/medline PY - 2007/9/29/entrez SP - 175 EP - 175 JF - BMC evolutionary biology JO - BMC Evol Biol VL - 7 N2 - BACKGROUND: Snake venom composition varies widely both among closely related species and within the same species, based on ecological variables. In terrestrial snakes, such variation has been proposed to be due to snakes' diet. Land snakes target various prey species including insects (arthropods), lizards (reptiles), frogs and toads (amphibians), birds (aves), and rodents (mammals), whereas sea snakes target a single vertebrate class (fishes) and often specialize on specific types of fish. It is therefore interesting to examine the evolution of toxins in sea snake venoms compared to that of land snakes. RESULTS: Here we describe the expression of toxin genes in the venom glands of two sea snakes, Lapemis curtus (Spine-bellied Sea Snake) and Acalyptophis peronii (Horned Sea Snake), two members of a large adaptive radiation which occupy very different ecological niches. We constructed cDNA libraries from their venom glands and sequenced 214 and 192 clones, respectively. Our data show that despite their explosive evolutionary radiation, there is very little variability in the three-finger toxin (3FTx) as well as the phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzymes, the two main constituents of Lapemis curtus and Acalyptophis peronii venom. To understand the evolutionary trends among land snakes, sea snakes and sea kraits, pairwise genetic distances (intraspecific and interspecific) of 3FTx and PLA2 sequences were calculated. Results show that these proteins appear to be highly conserved in sea snakes in contrast to land snakes or sea kraits, despite their extremely divergent and adaptive ecological radiation. CONCLUSION: Based on these results, we suggest that streamlining in habitat and diet in sea snakes has possibly kept their toxin genes conserved, suggesting the idea that prey composition and diet breadth may contribute to the diversity and evolution of venom components. SN - 1471-2148 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/17900344/Expression_pattern_of_three_finger_toxin_and_phospholipase_A2_genes_in_the_venom_glands_of_two_sea_snakes_Lapemis_curtus_and_Acalyptophis_peronii:_comparison_of_evolution_of_these_toxins_in_land_snakes_sea_kraits_and_sea_snakes_ L2 - https://bmcevolbiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2148-7-175 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -