The vitamin D receptor.Dermatol Clin. 2007 Oct; 25(4):515-23, viii.DC
The vitamin D endocrine system is known for its essential role in calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism, and induces cell differentiation, inhibits cell growth, controls other hormonal systems, and modulates the immune response. Vitamin D(3) is a prohormone that is taken up by diet or synthesized in ultraviolet radiation-exposed skin and metabolically converted to the active metabolite, 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3). This nuclear hormone binds with high affinity the nuclear receptor vitamin D receptor. More than 3000 synthetic analogs of 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) are known. This review aims to provide an overview on vitamin D signaling from the skin perspective.