Anti-apoptotic effect of esculin on dopamine-induced cytotoxicity in the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line.Neuropharmacology. 2007 Nov; 53(6):724-32.N
Dopamine (DA), as a neurotoxin, can elicit severe Parkinson's disease-like syndrome by elevating intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and apoptotic activity. In this study, we examined the effect of esculin, which was extracted from Fraxinus sielboldiana blume, on DA-induced cytotoxicity and the underlying mechanism in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Our results suggest that the protective effects of esculin (10(-7), 10(-6) and 10(-5) M) on DA-induced cytotoxicity may be ascribed to its anti-oxidative properties by reducing ROS level, and its anti-apoptotic effect via protecting mitochondrion membrane potential (DeltaPsim), enhancing superoxide dismutaese (SOD) activity and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, and regulating P53, Bax and Bcl-2 expression. In addition, esculin inhibited the release of cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), and the protein expression of activated caspase 3. These data indicate that esculin may provide a useful therapeutic strategy for the treatment of progressive neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD).