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The endocannabinoid system and gut-brain signalling.

Abstract

The endocannabinoid system (ECS) consists of cannabinoid receptors, endogenous ligands and the biosynthetic and metabolic enzymes for their formation and degradation. Within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, the ECS is involved in the regulation of motility, secretion, sensation, emesis, satiety and inflammation. Recent studies examining the ECS in the gut-brain axis have shed new light on this system and reveal many facets of regulation that are amenable to targeting by pharmacological interventions that may prove valuable for the treatment of GI disorders. In particular, it has been shown that endocannabinoid levels in the brain and gut vary according to states of satiety, and in conditions of diarrhea, emesis and inflammation. The expression of cannabinoid (CB)(1) receptors on vagal afferents is controlled by the states of satiety and by gut peptides such as cholecystokinin and ghrelin. Vagal control of gut motor function and emesis is regulated by endocannabinoids in the brainstem acting on CB(1), CB(2) and transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV)-1 receptors. The ECS is involved in the modulation of visceral sensation and likely contributes to effects of stress on GI function. This review examines recent developments in our understanding of the ECS in gut-brain signalling.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Medicine, Hotchkiss Brain Institute and Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, University of Calgary, 3330 Hospital Drive N.W., Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

    Source

    Current opinion in pharmacology 7:6 2007 Dec pg 575-82

    MeSH

    Animals
    Brain
    Brain Chemistry
    Cannabinoid Receptor Modulators
    Endocannabinoids
    Gastrointestinal Tract
    Humans
    Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB1
    Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB2
    Signal Transduction
    TRPV Cation Channels

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    17904903

    Citation

    Storr, Martin A., and Keith A. Sharkey. "The Endocannabinoid System and Gut-brain Signalling." Current Opinion in Pharmacology, vol. 7, no. 6, 2007, pp. 575-82.
    Storr MA, Sharkey KA. The endocannabinoid system and gut-brain signalling. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2007;7(6):575-82.
    Storr, M. A., & Sharkey, K. A. (2007). The endocannabinoid system and gut-brain signalling. Current Opinion in Pharmacology, 7(6), pp. 575-82.
    Storr MA, Sharkey KA. The Endocannabinoid System and Gut-brain Signalling. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2007;7(6):575-82. PubMed PMID: 17904903.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - The endocannabinoid system and gut-brain signalling. AU - Storr,Martin A, AU - Sharkey,Keith A, Y1 - 2007/09/29/ PY - 2007/06/27/received PY - 2007/08/22/revised PY - 2007/08/23/accepted PY - 2007/10/2/pubmed PY - 2008/1/25/medline PY - 2007/10/2/entrez SP - 575 EP - 82 JF - Current opinion in pharmacology JO - Curr Opin Pharmacol VL - 7 IS - 6 N2 - The endocannabinoid system (ECS) consists of cannabinoid receptors, endogenous ligands and the biosynthetic and metabolic enzymes for their formation and degradation. Within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, the ECS is involved in the regulation of motility, secretion, sensation, emesis, satiety and inflammation. Recent studies examining the ECS in the gut-brain axis have shed new light on this system and reveal many facets of regulation that are amenable to targeting by pharmacological interventions that may prove valuable for the treatment of GI disorders. In particular, it has been shown that endocannabinoid levels in the brain and gut vary according to states of satiety, and in conditions of diarrhea, emesis and inflammation. The expression of cannabinoid (CB)(1) receptors on vagal afferents is controlled by the states of satiety and by gut peptides such as cholecystokinin and ghrelin. Vagal control of gut motor function and emesis is regulated by endocannabinoids in the brainstem acting on CB(1), CB(2) and transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV)-1 receptors. The ECS is involved in the modulation of visceral sensation and likely contributes to effects of stress on GI function. This review examines recent developments in our understanding of the ECS in gut-brain signalling. SN - 1471-4892 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/17904903/The_endocannabinoid_system_and_gut_brain_signalling_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1471-4892(07)00141-5 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -