Multiple experimental approaches of immunotoxic effects of mercury chloride in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, through in vivo, in tubo and in vitro exposures.Environ Pollut. 2008 May; 153(2):416-23.EP
Biological impairments due to mercury discharge into the environment are now an issue of global concern. From the three forms of mercury found in aquatic ecosystems, the immunotoxic effects of mercury chloride were examined in the model animal, the blue mussel. In order to investigate the toxic potency of this chemical, three exposure regimes were carried out: chronic exposure of groups of individuals, a new protocol "in tubo" designed for sub-acute exposures of individuals, and acute exposures of target cells. Chronic exposure revealed significant immunotoxic effects after 7 days at 10(-6)M, while acute exposures showed significant inhibition of phagocytosis at 10(-4)M and 10(-3)M. In sub-acute exposures both circulating haemocytes and haemocyte mortality increased at 10(-4)M and 10(-3)M while phagocytosis and the clearance rate drew hormetic toxic effects on healthy individuals. These results suggest the use of the "in tubo" design for bivalve toxicological individual studies.