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Physical inactivity, depression, and risk of cardiovascular mortality.
Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007 Oct; 39(10):1693-9.MS

Abstract

PURPOSE

Studies indicate that depression may increase risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in addition to classical risk factors. One of the hypotheses to explain this relation is that depressed subjects become physically inactive. We set out to determine the role of physical inactivity in the relation between depressive symptoms and cardiovascular mortality.

METHODS

Data were used from the population-based prospective Finland, Italy, and the Netherlands Elderly (FINE) Study. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale in 909 elderly men, aged 70-90 yr, free of CVD and diabetes at baseline in 1990. Physical activity was assessed with a questionnaire for retired men. Hazard ratios (HR) for 10-yr cardiovascular mortality were calculated, adjusting for demographics and cardiovascular risk factors.

RESULTS

At baseline, men with more depressive symptoms were less physically active (722 min.wk; 95% confidence interval (CI), 642-802) than men with few depressive symptoms (919 min.wk; 95% CI, 823-1015). During 10 yr of follow-up, 256 (28%) men died from CVD. The adjusted HR of cardiovascular mortality for a decrease of 30 min.d in physical activity was 1.09 (95% CI, 1.04-1.14). An increase in depressive symptoms with one standard deviation was associated with a higher cardiovascular mortality risk (HR = 1.42; 95% CI, 1.26-1.60). After additional adjustment for physical activity the risk decreased (9%), but an independent risk remained (HR = 1.37; 95% CI, 1.21-1.56). The excess risk on cardiovascular mortality attributable to the combined effect of depressive symptoms with inactivity was 1.47 (95% CI, -0.17 to 3.11).

CONCLUSIONS

In the present study, the increased risk of depressive symptoms on cardiovascular mortality could not be explained by physical inactivity. However, our results suggest that depressive symptoms and physical inactivity may interact to increase cardiovascular mortality risk.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center, Utrecht, The Netherlands. m.kamphuis@umcutrecht.nlNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

17909394

Citation

Kamphuis, Marjolein H., et al. "Physical Inactivity, Depression, and Risk of Cardiovascular Mortality." Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 39, no. 10, 2007, pp. 1693-9.
Kamphuis MH, Geerlings MI, Tijhuis MA, et al. Physical inactivity, depression, and risk of cardiovascular mortality. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007;39(10):1693-9.
Kamphuis, M. H., Geerlings, M. I., Tijhuis, M. A., Giampaoli, S., Nissinen, A., Grobbee, D. E., & Kromhout, D. (2007). Physical inactivity, depression, and risk of cardiovascular mortality. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 39(10), 1693-9.
Kamphuis MH, et al. Physical Inactivity, Depression, and Risk of Cardiovascular Mortality. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007;39(10):1693-9. PubMed PMID: 17909394.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Physical inactivity, depression, and risk of cardiovascular mortality. AU - Kamphuis,Marjolein H, AU - Geerlings,Mirjam I, AU - Tijhuis,Marja A R, AU - Giampaoli,Simona, AU - Nissinen,Aulikki, AU - Grobbee,Diederick E, AU - Kromhout,Daan, PY - 2007/10/3/pubmed PY - 2008/1/12/medline PY - 2007/10/3/entrez SP - 1693 EP - 9 JF - Medicine and science in sports and exercise JO - Med Sci Sports Exerc VL - 39 IS - 10 N2 - PURPOSE: Studies indicate that depression may increase risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in addition to classical risk factors. One of the hypotheses to explain this relation is that depressed subjects become physically inactive. We set out to determine the role of physical inactivity in the relation between depressive symptoms and cardiovascular mortality. METHODS: Data were used from the population-based prospective Finland, Italy, and the Netherlands Elderly (FINE) Study. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale in 909 elderly men, aged 70-90 yr, free of CVD and diabetes at baseline in 1990. Physical activity was assessed with a questionnaire for retired men. Hazard ratios (HR) for 10-yr cardiovascular mortality were calculated, adjusting for demographics and cardiovascular risk factors. RESULTS: At baseline, men with more depressive symptoms were less physically active (722 min.wk; 95% confidence interval (CI), 642-802) than men with few depressive symptoms (919 min.wk; 95% CI, 823-1015). During 10 yr of follow-up, 256 (28%) men died from CVD. The adjusted HR of cardiovascular mortality for a decrease of 30 min.d in physical activity was 1.09 (95% CI, 1.04-1.14). An increase in depressive symptoms with one standard deviation was associated with a higher cardiovascular mortality risk (HR = 1.42; 95% CI, 1.26-1.60). After additional adjustment for physical activity the risk decreased (9%), but an independent risk remained (HR = 1.37; 95% CI, 1.21-1.56). The excess risk on cardiovascular mortality attributable to the combined effect of depressive symptoms with inactivity was 1.47 (95% CI, -0.17 to 3.11). CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, the increased risk of depressive symptoms on cardiovascular mortality could not be explained by physical inactivity. However, our results suggest that depressive symptoms and physical inactivity may interact to increase cardiovascular mortality risk. SN - 0195-9131 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/17909394/Physical_inactivity_depression_and_risk_of_cardiovascular_mortality_ L2 - http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/mss.0b013e3180f6109f DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -