Development and in-vivo evaluation of insulin-loaded chitosan phthalate microspheres for oral delivery.J Pharm Pharmacol. 2007 Oct; 59(10):1345-51.JP
Novel chitosan phthalate microspheres containing insulin were prepared by emulsion cross-linking technique. The feasibility of these microspheres as oral insulin delivery carriers was evaluated. The pH-responsive release behaviour of insulin from microspheres was analysed. The ability of chitosan phthalate-insulin microspheres to enhance intestinal absorption and improve the relative pharmacological availability of insulin was investigated by monitoring the plasma glucose and insulin level of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats after oral administration of microspheres at insulin dose of 20 IU kg(-1). In simulated gastric fluid (pH 2.0), insulin release from the microspheres was very slow. However, as the pH of the medium was changed to simulated intestinal fluid (pH 7.4), a rapid release of insulin occurred. The relative pharmacological efficacy for chitosan phthalate microspheres (18.66 +/- 3.84%) was almost four-fold higher than the efficacy of the chitosan phthalate-insulin solution administration (4.08 +/- 1.52%). Chitosan phthalate microspheres sustained the plasma glucose at pre-diabetic level for at least 16 h. These findings suggest that the microsphere is a promising carrier as oral insulin delivery system.