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Influenza viruses and the evolution of avian influenza virus H5N1.

Abstract

Although small in size and simple in structure, influenza viruses are sophisticated organisms with highly mutagenic genomes and wide antigenic diversity. They are species-specific organisms. Mutation and reassortment have resulted in newer viruses such as H5N1, with new resistance against anti-viral medications, and this might lead to the emergence of a fully transmissible strain, as occurred in the 1957 and 1968 pandemics. Influenza viruses are no longer just a cause of self-limited upper respiratory tract infections; the H5N1 avian influenza virus can cause severe human infection with a mortality rate exceeding 50%. The case death rate of H5N1 avian influenza infection is 20 times higher than that of the 1918 infection (50% versus 2.5%), which killed 675000 people in the USA and almost 40 million people worldwide. While the clock is still ticking towards what seems to be inevitable pandemic influenza, on April 17, 2007 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the first vaccine against the avian influenza virus H5N1 for humans at high risk. However, more research is needed to develop a more effective and affordable vaccine that can be given at lower doses.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    St. Mary's Regional Medical Center, Sabattus Street Internal Medicine Clinic, 963 Sabattus Street, Lewiston, ME 04240, USA. nskeik@yahoo.com

    Source

    MeSH

    Animals
    Birds
    Disease Outbreaks
    Evolution, Molecular
    Humans
    Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype
    Influenza A virus
    Influenza Vaccines
    Influenza in Birds
    Influenza, Human
    Vaccination

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    17913533

    Citation

    Skeik, Nedaa, and Fadi I. Jabr. "Influenza Viruses and the Evolution of Avian Influenza Virus H5N1." International Journal of Infectious Diseases : IJID : Official Publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases, vol. 12, no. 3, 2008, pp. 233-8.
    Skeik N, Jabr FI. Influenza viruses and the evolution of avian influenza virus H5N1. Int J Infect Dis. 2008;12(3):233-8.
    Skeik, N., & Jabr, F. I. (2008). Influenza viruses and the evolution of avian influenza virus H5N1. International Journal of Infectious Diseases : IJID : Official Publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases, 12(3), pp. 233-8.
    Skeik N, Jabr FI. Influenza Viruses and the Evolution of Avian Influenza Virus H5N1. Int J Infect Dis. 2008;12(3):233-8. PubMed PMID: 17913533.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Influenza viruses and the evolution of avian influenza virus H5N1. AU - Skeik,Nedaa, AU - Jabr,Fadi I, Y1 - 2007/10/02/ PY - 2007/04/27/received PY - 2007/07/21/revised PY - 2007/07/24/accepted PY - 2007/10/5/pubmed PY - 2008/7/24/medline PY - 2007/10/5/entrez SP - 233 EP - 8 JF - International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases JO - Int. J. Infect. Dis. VL - 12 IS - 3 N2 - Although small in size and simple in structure, influenza viruses are sophisticated organisms with highly mutagenic genomes and wide antigenic diversity. They are species-specific organisms. Mutation and reassortment have resulted in newer viruses such as H5N1, with new resistance against anti-viral medications, and this might lead to the emergence of a fully transmissible strain, as occurred in the 1957 and 1968 pandemics. Influenza viruses are no longer just a cause of self-limited upper respiratory tract infections; the H5N1 avian influenza virus can cause severe human infection with a mortality rate exceeding 50%. The case death rate of H5N1 avian influenza infection is 20 times higher than that of the 1918 infection (50% versus 2.5%), which killed 675000 people in the USA and almost 40 million people worldwide. While the clock is still ticking towards what seems to be inevitable pandemic influenza, on April 17, 2007 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the first vaccine against the avian influenza virus H5N1 for humans at high risk. However, more research is needed to develop a more effective and affordable vaccine that can be given at lower doses. SN - 1201-9712 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/17913533/Influenza_viruses_and_the_evolution_of_avian_influenza_virus_H5N1_ L2 - http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1201-9712(07)00153-1 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -