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Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and the risk of breast cancer in an Italian prospective cohort study.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Oct; 86(4):1160-6.AJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Interest in the roles of glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) in breast cancer etiology has been stimulated by indications that disease risk is linked to insulinemia, sex hormone bioavailability, and insulin-like growth factor 1.

OBJECTIVE

We aimed to determine whether GI and GL were associated with the risk of breast cancer in a cohort of Italian women volunteers from Northern Italy, who enrolled between 1987-1992 in the Hormones and Diet in the Etiology of Breast Tumors Study (ORDET Study).

DESIGN

Volunteers completed a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire, and anthropometric and lifestyle data were collected. Dietary GI and GL in relation to breast cancer risk were examined in 8926 cohort women, including 289 with breast cancer identified after a mean follow-up of 11.5 y.

RESULTS

The relative risk (RR) of breast cancer in the highest (versus lowest) quintiles of GI and GL was 1.57 (95% CI: 1.04, 2.36; P for trend = 0.040) and 2.53 (95% CI: 1.54, 4.16; P for trend = 0.001), respectively. Total carbohydrate intake was not associated with greater breast cancer risk, but high carbohydrate from high-GI foods was. When women were categorized by baseline menopausal status and body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)), the increased risk of dietary GL was confined to those who were premenopausal (RR = 3.89; 95% CI: 1.81, 8.34) and who had normal BMI (ie, <25) (RR = 5.79; 95% CI: 2.60, 12.90) (P for trend = 0.001 for both).

CONCLUSIONS

A high-GL diet may increase the risk of breast cancer in Italian women. The effect is particularly evident in premenopausal women and those with BMI < 25.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Nutritional Epidemiology Unit, National Cancer Institute, Milan, Italy. sabina.sieri@istitutotumori.mi.itNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

17921397

Citation

Sieri, Sabina, et al. "Dietary Glycemic Index, Glycemic Load, and the Risk of Breast Cancer in an Italian Prospective Cohort Study." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 86, no. 4, 2007, pp. 1160-6.
Sieri S, Pala V, Brighenti F, et al. Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and the risk of breast cancer in an Italian prospective cohort study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;86(4):1160-6.
Sieri, S., Pala, V., Brighenti, F., Pellegrini, N., Muti, P., Micheli, A., Evangelista, A., Grioni, S., Contiero, P., Berrino, F., & Krogh, V. (2007). Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and the risk of breast cancer in an Italian prospective cohort study. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 86(4), 1160-6.
Sieri S, et al. Dietary Glycemic Index, Glycemic Load, and the Risk of Breast Cancer in an Italian Prospective Cohort Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;86(4):1160-6. PubMed PMID: 17921397.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and the risk of breast cancer in an Italian prospective cohort study. AU - Sieri,Sabina, AU - Pala,Valeria, AU - Brighenti,Furio, AU - Pellegrini,Nicoletta, AU - Muti,Paola, AU - Micheli,Andrea, AU - Evangelista,Alberto, AU - Grioni,Sara, AU - Contiero,Paolo, AU - Berrino,Franco, AU - Krogh,Vittorio, PY - 2007/10/9/pubmed PY - 2007/12/6/medline PY - 2007/10/9/entrez SP - 1160 EP - 6 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am. J. Clin. Nutr. VL - 86 IS - 4 N2 - BACKGROUND: Interest in the roles of glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) in breast cancer etiology has been stimulated by indications that disease risk is linked to insulinemia, sex hormone bioavailability, and insulin-like growth factor 1. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine whether GI and GL were associated with the risk of breast cancer in a cohort of Italian women volunteers from Northern Italy, who enrolled between 1987-1992 in the Hormones and Diet in the Etiology of Breast Tumors Study (ORDET Study). DESIGN: Volunteers completed a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire, and anthropometric and lifestyle data were collected. Dietary GI and GL in relation to breast cancer risk were examined in 8926 cohort women, including 289 with breast cancer identified after a mean follow-up of 11.5 y. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of breast cancer in the highest (versus lowest) quintiles of GI and GL was 1.57 (95% CI: 1.04, 2.36; P for trend = 0.040) and 2.53 (95% CI: 1.54, 4.16; P for trend = 0.001), respectively. Total carbohydrate intake was not associated with greater breast cancer risk, but high carbohydrate from high-GI foods was. When women were categorized by baseline menopausal status and body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)), the increased risk of dietary GL was confined to those who were premenopausal (RR = 3.89; 95% CI: 1.81, 8.34) and who had normal BMI (ie, <25) (RR = 5.79; 95% CI: 2.60, 12.90) (P for trend = 0.001 for both). CONCLUSIONS: A high-GL diet may increase the risk of breast cancer in Italian women. The effect is particularly evident in premenopausal women and those with BMI < 25. SN - 0002-9165 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/17921397/Dietary_glycemic_index_glycemic_load_and_the_risk_of_breast_cancer_in_an_Italian_prospective_cohort_study_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/ajcn/86.4.1160 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -