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Selected vitamins and trace elements support immune function by strengthening epithelial barriers and cellular and humoral immune responses.

Abstract

Adequate intakes of micronutrients are required for the immune system to function efficiently. Micronutrient deficiency suppresses immunity by affecting innate, T cell mediated and adaptive antibody responses, leading to dysregulation of the balanced host response. This situation increases susceptibility to infections, with increased morbidity and mortality. In turn, infections aggravate micronutrient deficiencies by reducing nutrient intake, increasing losses, and interfering with utilization by altering metabolic pathways. Insufficient intake of micronutrients occurs in people with eating disorders, in smokers (active and passive), in individuals with chronic alcohol abuse, in certain diseases, during pregnancy and lactation, and in the elderly. This paper summarises the roles of selected vitamins and trace elements in immune function. Micronutrients contribute to the body's natural defences on three levels by supporting physical barriers (skin/mucosa), cellular immunity and antibody production. Vitamins A, C, E and the trace element zinc assist in enhancing the skin barrier function. The vitamins A, B6, B12, C, D, E and folic acid and the trace elements iron, zinc, copper and selenium work in synergy to support the protective activities of the immune cells. Finally, all these micronutrients, with the exception of vitamin C and iron, are essential for antibody production. Overall, inadequate intake and status of these vitamins and trace elements may lead to suppressed immunity, which predisposes to infections and aggravates malnutrition. Therefore, supplementation with these selected micronutrients can support the body's natural defence system by enhancing all three levels of immunity.

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  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Bayer Consumer Care Ltd, Peter Merian-Strasse 84, P.O. Box, 4002 Basel, Switzerland. silvia.maggini.sm@bayer.ch

    , ,

    Source

    The British journal of nutrition 98 Suppl 1: 2007 Oct pg S29-35

    MeSH

    Antibody Formation
    Avitaminosis
    Humans
    Immunity, Cellular
    Immunocompetence
    Trace Elements
    Vitamins

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    17922955

    Citation

    Maggini, Silvia, et al. "Selected Vitamins and Trace Elements Support Immune Function By Strengthening Epithelial Barriers and Cellular and Humoral Immune Responses." The British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 98 Suppl 1, 2007, pp. S29-35.
    Maggini S, Wintergerst ES, Beveridge S, et al. Selected vitamins and trace elements support immune function by strengthening epithelial barriers and cellular and humoral immune responses. Br J Nutr. 2007;98 Suppl 1:S29-35.
    Maggini, S., Wintergerst, E. S., Beveridge, S., & Hornig, D. H. (2007). Selected vitamins and trace elements support immune function by strengthening epithelial barriers and cellular and humoral immune responses. The British Journal of Nutrition, 98 Suppl 1, pp. S29-35.
    Maggini S, et al. Selected Vitamins and Trace Elements Support Immune Function By Strengthening Epithelial Barriers and Cellular and Humoral Immune Responses. Br J Nutr. 2007;98 Suppl 1:S29-35. PubMed PMID: 17922955.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Selected vitamins and trace elements support immune function by strengthening epithelial barriers and cellular and humoral immune responses. AU - Maggini,Silvia, AU - Wintergerst,Eva S, AU - Beveridge,Stephen, AU - Hornig,Dietrich H, PY - 2007/11/21/pubmed PY - 2008/2/23/medline PY - 2007/11/21/entrez SP - S29 EP - 35 JF - The British journal of nutrition JO - Br. J. Nutr. VL - 98 Suppl 1 N2 - Adequate intakes of micronutrients are required for the immune system to function efficiently. Micronutrient deficiency suppresses immunity by affecting innate, T cell mediated and adaptive antibody responses, leading to dysregulation of the balanced host response. This situation increases susceptibility to infections, with increased morbidity and mortality. In turn, infections aggravate micronutrient deficiencies by reducing nutrient intake, increasing losses, and interfering with utilization by altering metabolic pathways. Insufficient intake of micronutrients occurs in people with eating disorders, in smokers (active and passive), in individuals with chronic alcohol abuse, in certain diseases, during pregnancy and lactation, and in the elderly. This paper summarises the roles of selected vitamins and trace elements in immune function. Micronutrients contribute to the body's natural defences on three levels by supporting physical barriers (skin/mucosa), cellular immunity and antibody production. Vitamins A, C, E and the trace element zinc assist in enhancing the skin barrier function. The vitamins A, B6, B12, C, D, E and folic acid and the trace elements iron, zinc, copper and selenium work in synergy to support the protective activities of the immune cells. Finally, all these micronutrients, with the exception of vitamin C and iron, are essential for antibody production. Overall, inadequate intake and status of these vitamins and trace elements may lead to suppressed immunity, which predisposes to infections and aggravates malnutrition. Therefore, supplementation with these selected micronutrients can support the body's natural defence system by enhancing all three levels of immunity. SN - 0007-1145 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/17922955/Selected_vitamins_and_trace_elements_support_immune_function_by_strengthening_epithelial_barriers_and_cellular_and_humoral_immune_responses_ L2 - https://www.cambridge.org/core/product/identifier/S0007114507832971/type/journal_article DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -