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Localization and biological activities of melatonin in intact and diseased gastrointestinal tract (GIT).
J Physiol Pharmacol. 2007 Sep; 58(3):381-405.JP

Abstract

Melatonin (MT), an indole formed enzymatically from L-trytophan (Trp), was first discovered in the bovine pineal gland in 1958 by Lerner et al. Melatonin is the most versatile and ubiquitous hormonal molecule produced not only in the pineal gland but also in various other tissues of invertebrates and vertebrates, particularly in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). This review focuses on the localization, production, metabolism and the functions of MT in GIT and the duodenal unit (liver, biliary routes and pancreas), where multi-step biosynthetic pathways of this indole, similar to those in pinealocytes, have been identified. These biosynthetic steps of MT, including two major rate limiting enzymes; arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT), transforming L-tryptophan (Trp), originally identified in pinealocytes, have been also detected in entero-endocrine (EE) cells of GIT, where this indole appears to act in endocrine, paracrine and/or luminal pathway directly or through G-protein coupled MT receptors. Studies of the distribution of MT in GIT mucosa showed that this indole is generated in GIT in much larger amounts than it is produced in the pineal gland. Melatonin acts in GIT, partly locally in paracrine fashion and is partly released into portal circulation, to be taken up by the liver. It is then metabolized and excreted with the bile to small bowel and finally returns to liver through entero-hepatic circulation. The production of MT by the pineal gland shows circadian rhythm with high night-time surge, especially at younger age, followed by the fall during the day-light time. As a highly lipophylic substance, MT reaches all body cells within minutes, thus, serving as a convenient circadian timing signal. Following pinealectomy, the light/dark cycle of plasma MT levels disappears, while its day-time blood concentration is maintained mainly due to its release from the GIT. According to our experience, after oral application of Trp, the plasma MT increases in dose-dependent manner both in intact and pinealectomized animals and humans, indicating that GIT but not the pineal gland is a source of this indole. In GIT MT exhibits a wide spectrum of activities such as circadian entrainment, antioxidant and free radicals scavenging activity, Melatonin (MT), an indole formed enzymatically from L-trytophan (Trp), was first discovered in the bovine pineal gland in 1958 by Lerner et al. Melatonin is the most versatile and ubiquitous hormonal molecule produced not only in the pineal gland but also in various other tissues of invertebrates and vertebrates, particularly in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). This review focuses on the localization, production, metabolism and the functions of MT in GIT and the duodenal unit (liver, biliary routes and pancreas), where multi-step biosynthetic pathways of this indole, similar to those in pinealocytes, have been identified. These biosynthetic steps of MT, including two major rate limiting enzymes; arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT), transforming L-tryptophan (Trp), originally identified in pinealocytes, have been also detected in entero-endocrine (EE) cells of GIT, where this indole appears to act in endocrine, paracrine and/or luminal pathway directly or through G-protein coupled MT receptors. Studies of the distribution of MT in GIT mucosa showed that this indole is generated in GIT in much larger amounts than it is produced in the pineal gland. Melatonin acts in GIT, partly locally in paracrine fashion and is partly released into portal circulation, to be taken up by the liver. It is then metabolized and excreted with the bile to small bowel and finally returns to liver through entero-hepatic circulation. The production of MT by the pineal gland shows circadian rhythm with high night-time surge, especially at younger age, followed by the fall during the day-light time. As a highly lipophylic substance, MT reaches all body cells within minutes, thus, serving as a convenient circadian timing signal. Following pinealectomy, the light/dark cycle of plasma MT levels disappears, while its day-time blood concentration is maintained mainly due to its release from the GIT. According to our experience, after oral application of Trp, the plasma MT increases in dose-dependent manner both in intact and pinealectomized animals and humans, indicating that GIT but not the pineal gland is a source of this indole. In GIT MT exhibits a wide spectrum of activities such as circadian entrainment, antioxidant and free radicals scavenging activity, cytoprotective, anti-inflammatory and healing efficacy of various GIT lesions such as esophagitis, gastritis, peptic ulcer, pancreatitis and colitis. This review concentrates on the generation and pathophysiological implication of MT in GIT and related organs.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Physiology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Cracow, Poland. mpkontur@cyf-kr.edu.plNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

17928638

Citation

Konturek, S J., et al. "Localization and Biological Activities of Melatonin in Intact and Diseased Gastrointestinal Tract (GIT)." Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology : an Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society, vol. 58, no. 3, 2007, pp. 381-405.
Konturek SJ, Konturek PC, Brzozowska I, et al. Localization and biological activities of melatonin in intact and diseased gastrointestinal tract (GIT). J Physiol Pharmacol. 2007;58(3):381-405.
Konturek, S. J., Konturek, P. C., Brzozowska, I., Pawlik, M., Sliwowski, Z., Cześnikiewicz-Guzik, M., Kwiecień, S., Brzozowski, T., Bubenik, G. A., & Pawlik, W. W. (2007). Localization and biological activities of melatonin in intact and diseased gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology : an Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society, 58(3), 381-405.
Konturek SJ, et al. Localization and Biological Activities of Melatonin in Intact and Diseased Gastrointestinal Tract (GIT). J Physiol Pharmacol. 2007;58(3):381-405. PubMed PMID: 17928638.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Localization and biological activities of melatonin in intact and diseased gastrointestinal tract (GIT). AU - Konturek,S J, AU - Konturek,P C, AU - Brzozowska,I, AU - Pawlik,M, AU - Sliwowski,Z, AU - Cześnikiewicz-Guzik,M, AU - Kwiecień,S, AU - Brzozowski,T, AU - Bubenik,G A, AU - Pawlik,W W, PY - 2007/06/19/received PY - 2007/07/13/accepted PY - 2007/10/12/pubmed PY - 2007/12/22/medline PY - 2007/10/12/entrez SP - 381 EP - 405 JF - Journal of physiology and pharmacology : an official journal of the Polish Physiological Society JO - J Physiol Pharmacol VL - 58 IS - 3 N2 - Melatonin (MT), an indole formed enzymatically from L-trytophan (Trp), was first discovered in the bovine pineal gland in 1958 by Lerner et al. Melatonin is the most versatile and ubiquitous hormonal molecule produced not only in the pineal gland but also in various other tissues of invertebrates and vertebrates, particularly in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). This review focuses on the localization, production, metabolism and the functions of MT in GIT and the duodenal unit (liver, biliary routes and pancreas), where multi-step biosynthetic pathways of this indole, similar to those in pinealocytes, have been identified. These biosynthetic steps of MT, including two major rate limiting enzymes; arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT), transforming L-tryptophan (Trp), originally identified in pinealocytes, have been also detected in entero-endocrine (EE) cells of GIT, where this indole appears to act in endocrine, paracrine and/or luminal pathway directly or through G-protein coupled MT receptors. Studies of the distribution of MT in GIT mucosa showed that this indole is generated in GIT in much larger amounts than it is produced in the pineal gland. Melatonin acts in GIT, partly locally in paracrine fashion and is partly released into portal circulation, to be taken up by the liver. It is then metabolized and excreted with the bile to small bowel and finally returns to liver through entero-hepatic circulation. The production of MT by the pineal gland shows circadian rhythm with high night-time surge, especially at younger age, followed by the fall during the day-light time. As a highly lipophylic substance, MT reaches all body cells within minutes, thus, serving as a convenient circadian timing signal. Following pinealectomy, the light/dark cycle of plasma MT levels disappears, while its day-time blood concentration is maintained mainly due to its release from the GIT. According to our experience, after oral application of Trp, the plasma MT increases in dose-dependent manner both in intact and pinealectomized animals and humans, indicating that GIT but not the pineal gland is a source of this indole. In GIT MT exhibits a wide spectrum of activities such as circadian entrainment, antioxidant and free radicals scavenging activity, Melatonin (MT), an indole formed enzymatically from L-trytophan (Trp), was first discovered in the bovine pineal gland in 1958 by Lerner et al. Melatonin is the most versatile and ubiquitous hormonal molecule produced not only in the pineal gland but also in various other tissues of invertebrates and vertebrates, particularly in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). This review focuses on the localization, production, metabolism and the functions of MT in GIT and the duodenal unit (liver, biliary routes and pancreas), where multi-step biosynthetic pathways of this indole, similar to those in pinealocytes, have been identified. These biosynthetic steps of MT, including two major rate limiting enzymes; arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT), transforming L-tryptophan (Trp), originally identified in pinealocytes, have been also detected in entero-endocrine (EE) cells of GIT, where this indole appears to act in endocrine, paracrine and/or luminal pathway directly or through G-protein coupled MT receptors. Studies of the distribution of MT in GIT mucosa showed that this indole is generated in GIT in much larger amounts than it is produced in the pineal gland. Melatonin acts in GIT, partly locally in paracrine fashion and is partly released into portal circulation, to be taken up by the liver. It is then metabolized and excreted with the bile to small bowel and finally returns to liver through entero-hepatic circulation. The production of MT by the pineal gland shows circadian rhythm with high night-time surge, especially at younger age, followed by the fall during the day-light time. As a highly lipophylic substance, MT reaches all body cells within minutes, thus, serving as a convenient circadian timing signal. Following pinealectomy, the light/dark cycle of plasma MT levels disappears, while its day-time blood concentration is maintained mainly due to its release from the GIT. According to our experience, after oral application of Trp, the plasma MT increases in dose-dependent manner both in intact and pinealectomized animals and humans, indicating that GIT but not the pineal gland is a source of this indole. In GIT MT exhibits a wide spectrum of activities such as circadian entrainment, antioxidant and free radicals scavenging activity, cytoprotective, anti-inflammatory and healing efficacy of various GIT lesions such as esophagitis, gastritis, peptic ulcer, pancreatitis and colitis. This review concentrates on the generation and pathophysiological implication of MT in GIT and related organs. SN - 0867-5910 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/17928638/Localization_and_biological_activities_of_melatonin_in_intact_and_diseased_gastrointestinal_tract__GIT__ L2 - http://www.jpp.krakow.pl/journal/archive/09_07/pdf/381_09_07_article.pdf DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -