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Relationships among pain, anxiety, and depression in primary care.
Depress Anxiety. 2008; 25(7):593-600.DA

Abstract

Pain, anxiety, and depression are commonly seen in primary care patients and there is considerable evidence that these experiences are related. This study examined associations between symptoms of pain and symptoms and diagnoses of anxiety and depression in primary care patients. Results indicate that primary care patients who endorse symptoms of muscle pain, headache, or stomach pain are approximately 2.5-10 times more likely to screen positively for panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, or major depressive disorder. Endorsement of pain symptoms was also significantly associated with confirmed diagnoses of several of the anxiety disorders and/or major depression, with odds ratios ranging from approximately 3 to 9 for the diagnoses. Patients with an anxiety or depressive disorder also reported greater interference from pain. Similarly, patients endorsing pain symptoms reported lower mental health functioning and higher scores on severity measures of depression, social anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Mediation analyses indicated that depression mediated some, but not all of the relationships between anxiety and pain. Overall, these results reveal an association between reports of pain symptoms and not only depression, but also anxiety. An awareness of these relationships may be particularly important in primary care settings where a patient who presents with reports of pain may have an undiagnosed anxiety or depressive disorder.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Psychology, Radford University, Radford, Virginia, USA.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

17932958

Citation

Means-Christensen, Adrienne J., et al. "Relationships Among Pain, Anxiety, and Depression in Primary Care." Depression and Anxiety, vol. 25, no. 7, 2008, pp. 593-600.
Means-Christensen AJ, Roy-Byrne PP, Sherbourne CD, et al. Relationships among pain, anxiety, and depression in primary care. Depress Anxiety. 2008;25(7):593-600.
Means-Christensen, A. J., Roy-Byrne, P. P., Sherbourne, C. D., Craske, M. G., & Stein, M. B. (2008). Relationships among pain, anxiety, and depression in primary care. Depression and Anxiety, 25(7), 593-600.
Means-Christensen AJ, et al. Relationships Among Pain, Anxiety, and Depression in Primary Care. Depress Anxiety. 2008;25(7):593-600. PubMed PMID: 17932958.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Relationships among pain, anxiety, and depression in primary care. AU - Means-Christensen,Adrienne J, AU - Roy-Byrne,Peter P, AU - Sherbourne,Cathy D, AU - Craske,Michelle G, AU - Stein,Murray B, PY - 2007/10/13/pubmed PY - 2008/11/5/medline PY - 2007/10/13/entrez SP - 593 EP - 600 JF - Depression and anxiety JO - Depress Anxiety VL - 25 IS - 7 N2 - Pain, anxiety, and depression are commonly seen in primary care patients and there is considerable evidence that these experiences are related. This study examined associations between symptoms of pain and symptoms and diagnoses of anxiety and depression in primary care patients. Results indicate that primary care patients who endorse symptoms of muscle pain, headache, or stomach pain are approximately 2.5-10 times more likely to screen positively for panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, or major depressive disorder. Endorsement of pain symptoms was also significantly associated with confirmed diagnoses of several of the anxiety disorders and/or major depression, with odds ratios ranging from approximately 3 to 9 for the diagnoses. Patients with an anxiety or depressive disorder also reported greater interference from pain. Similarly, patients endorsing pain symptoms reported lower mental health functioning and higher scores on severity measures of depression, social anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Mediation analyses indicated that depression mediated some, but not all of the relationships between anxiety and pain. Overall, these results reveal an association between reports of pain symptoms and not only depression, but also anxiety. An awareness of these relationships may be particularly important in primary care settings where a patient who presents with reports of pain may have an undiagnosed anxiety or depressive disorder. SN - 1520-6394 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/17932958/Relationships_among_pain_anxiety_and_depression_in_primary_care_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1002/da.20342 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -