Prevalence, incidence estimation, risk factors and characterization of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome in urological hospital outpatients in Italy: results of a multicenter case-control observational study.J Urol. 2007 Dec; 178(6):2411-5; discussion 2415.JU
We evaluated the prevalence and estimated the incidence and risk factors of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome in urological hospital outpatients in Italy.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
From January to June 2006 patients from 28 Italian urological centers who were between 25 and 50 years old with symptoms of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome were consecutively enrolled in this prospective epidemiological case-control study. A total of 152 subjects of similar age, race and area of origin who were investigated for infertile couples but were otherwise healthy served as controls. All subjects provided a medical history and underwent different symptom scorings, clinical evaluation and microbiological tests.
Of 5,540 male urological outpatients 764 with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome were enrolled, including 225 (29.4%) at the first presentation and 539 (70.6%) who underwent previous treatment. Thus, the prevalence of the syndrome was 13.8%, while the estimated incidence was 4.5%. Cigarette smoking, a high caloric diet with low fruit and vegetable consumption, constipation, meteorism, slow digestion, a sexual relationship with more than 1 partner and coitus interruptus were more likely in patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome than in controls (each p <0.001). The syndrome had a negative influence on sexual desire, erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation (p <0.001). The Meares and Stamey test was positive in 13.3% of patients and in 2.9% of controls. Urethral swabs in patients with a negative Meares and Stamey test were positive for sexually transmitted pathogens in 6%.
The prevalence and estimated incidence of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome in urological hospital outpatients in Italy are high. The syndrome is closely related to lifestyle, diet, smoking, gastrointestinal or anorectal disease and impaired sexual function.