Antimony film electrode for electrochemical stripping analysis.Anal Chem. 2007 Nov 15; 79(22):8639-43.AC
In this work, an antimony film electrode (SbFE) is reported for the first time as a possible alternative for electrochemical stripping analysis of trace heavy metals. The SbFE was prepared in situ on a glassy carbon substrate electrode and employed in combination with either anodic stripping voltammetry or stripping chronopotentiometry in nondeaerated solutions of 0.01 M hydrochloric acid (pH 2). Several key operational parameters influencing the electroanalytical response of SbFE were examined and optimized, such as deposition potential, deposition time, and composition of the measurement solution. The SbFE exhibited well-defined and separated stripping signals for both model metal ions, Cd(II) and Pb(II), surrounded with low background contribution and a relatively large negative potential range. The electrode revealed good linear behavior in the examined concentration range from 20 to 140 microg L-1 for both test metal ions, with a limit of detection (3sigma) of 0.7 microg L-1 for Cd(II) and 0.9 microg L-1 for Pb(II) obtained after a 120 s deposition step, and good reproducibility, with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of +/-3.6% for Cd(II) and +/-6.2% for Pb(II) (60 microg L-1, n = 12). When comparing the SbFE with the commonly used mercury film electrode and recently introduced bismuth film electrode, the newly proposed electrode offers a remarkable performance in more acidic solutions (pH < or = 2), which can be advantageous in electrochemical analysis of trace heavy metals, hence contributing to the wider applicability of electrochemical stripping techniques in connection with "mercury-free" electrodes.