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Comparison of biochemical effects of statins and fish oil in brain: the battle of the titans.
Brain Res Rev 2007; 56(2):443-71BR

Abstract

Neural membranes are composed of glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, cholesterol and proteins. The distribution of these lipids within the neural membrane is not random but organized. Neural membranes contain lipid rafts or microdomains that are enriched in sphingolipids and cholesterol. These rafts act as platforms for the generation of glycerophospholipid-, sphingolipid-, and cholesterol-derived second messengers, lipid mediators that are necessary for normal cellular function. Glycerophospholipid-derived lipid mediators include eicosanoids, docosanoids, lipoxins, and platelet-activating factor. Sphingolipid-derived lipid mediators include ceramides, ceramide 1-phosphates, and sphingosine 1-phosphate. Cholesterol-derived lipid mediators include 24-hydroxycholesterol, 25-hydroxycholesterol, and 7-ketocholesterol. Abnormal signal transduction processes and enhanced production of lipid mediators cause oxidative stress and inflammation. These processes are closely associated with the pathogenesis of acute neural trauma (stroke, spinal cord injury, and head injury) and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer disease. Statins, the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, are effective lipid lowering agents that significantly reduce risk for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Beneficial effects of statins in neurological diseases are due to their anti-excitotoxic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. Fish oil omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, have similar anti-excitotoxic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in brain tissue. Thus the lipid mediators, resolvins, protectins, and neuroprotectins, derived from eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid retard neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptotic cell death in brain tissue. Like statins, ingredients of fish oil inhibit generation of beta-amyloid and provide protection from oxidative stress and inflammatory processes. Collective evidence suggests that antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic properties of statins and fish oil contribute to the clinical efficacy of treating neurological disorders with statins and fish oil. We speculate that there is an overlap between neurochemical events associated with neural cell injury in stroke and neurodegenerative diseases. This commentary compares the neurochemical effects of statins with those of fish oil.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, The Ohio State University, 1645 Neil Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA. farooqui.1@osu.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

17959252

Citation

Farooqui, Akhlaq A., et al. "Comparison of Biochemical Effects of Statins and Fish Oil in Brain: the Battle of the Titans." Brain Research Reviews, vol. 56, no. 2, 2007, pp. 443-71.
Farooqui AA, Ong WY, Horrocks LA, et al. Comparison of biochemical effects of statins and fish oil in brain: the battle of the titans. Brain Res Rev. 2007;56(2):443-71.
Farooqui, A. A., Ong, W. Y., Horrocks, L. A., Chen, P., & Farooqui, T. (2007). Comparison of biochemical effects of statins and fish oil in brain: the battle of the titans. Brain Research Reviews, 56(2), pp. 443-71.
Farooqui AA, et al. Comparison of Biochemical Effects of Statins and Fish Oil in Brain: the Battle of the Titans. Brain Res Rev. 2007;56(2):443-71. PubMed PMID: 17959252.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Comparison of biochemical effects of statins and fish oil in brain: the battle of the titans. AU - Farooqui,Akhlaq A, AU - Ong,Wei-Yi, AU - Horrocks,Lloyd A, AU - Chen,Peng, AU - Farooqui,Tahira, Y1 - 2007/10/23/ PY - 2007/07/08/received PY - 2007/09/16/revised PY - 2007/09/17/accepted PY - 2007/10/26/pubmed PY - 2008/2/15/medline PY - 2007/10/26/entrez SP - 443 EP - 71 JF - Brain research reviews JO - Brain Res Rev VL - 56 IS - 2 N2 - Neural membranes are composed of glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, cholesterol and proteins. The distribution of these lipids within the neural membrane is not random but organized. Neural membranes contain lipid rafts or microdomains that are enriched in sphingolipids and cholesterol. These rafts act as platforms for the generation of glycerophospholipid-, sphingolipid-, and cholesterol-derived second messengers, lipid mediators that are necessary for normal cellular function. Glycerophospholipid-derived lipid mediators include eicosanoids, docosanoids, lipoxins, and platelet-activating factor. Sphingolipid-derived lipid mediators include ceramides, ceramide 1-phosphates, and sphingosine 1-phosphate. Cholesterol-derived lipid mediators include 24-hydroxycholesterol, 25-hydroxycholesterol, and 7-ketocholesterol. Abnormal signal transduction processes and enhanced production of lipid mediators cause oxidative stress and inflammation. These processes are closely associated with the pathogenesis of acute neural trauma (stroke, spinal cord injury, and head injury) and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer disease. Statins, the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, are effective lipid lowering agents that significantly reduce risk for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Beneficial effects of statins in neurological diseases are due to their anti-excitotoxic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. Fish oil omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, have similar anti-excitotoxic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in brain tissue. Thus the lipid mediators, resolvins, protectins, and neuroprotectins, derived from eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid retard neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptotic cell death in brain tissue. Like statins, ingredients of fish oil inhibit generation of beta-amyloid and provide protection from oxidative stress and inflammatory processes. Collective evidence suggests that antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic properties of statins and fish oil contribute to the clinical efficacy of treating neurological disorders with statins and fish oil. We speculate that there is an overlap between neurochemical events associated with neural cell injury in stroke and neurodegenerative diseases. This commentary compares the neurochemical effects of statins with those of fish oil. SN - 0165-0173 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/17959252/Comparison_of_biochemical_effects_of_statins_and_fish_oil_in_brain:_the_battle_of_the_titans_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0165-0173(07)00194-4 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -