Prevalence and clinical features of celiac disease in 950 children with type 1 diabetes in France.Diabetes Metab. 2007 Dec; 33(6):453-8.DM
The prevalence of celiac disease is higher in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) than in the general pediatric population, but may vary widely across countries. Sensitive and specific antibody tests are available for detecting celiac disease.
To evaluate the prevalence in France of histologically documented celiac disease in a vast cohort of children with type 1 DM, and to describe the features of celiac disease and treatment response.
Retrospective cohort study of 950 children with type 1 diabetes seen between 1994 and 2001. Antibodies to gliadin, reticulin, endomysium and transglutaminase were looked for one to seven times in each patient.
Fifteen patients (1.6%) had biopsy-confirmed celiac disease. Symptoms led to the diagnosis in six patients (mean age, 7 years) and screening tests in nine patients (mean age, 11 years). Anti-endomysium antibodies were consistently positive. Tests for HLA-DQB1 0201 and/or 0302 were positive. Anti-endomysium antibody seroconversion was seen in two patients, 2 and 6 years, respectively, after the diagnosis of diabetes. In another patient, the biopsy became abnormal 6 years after the first positive anti-endomysium antibody test (latent form). After a mean of 3 years on a gluten-free diet, significant increases were noted in body weight (P=0.04) and insulin dose (P=0.05); clinical symptoms completely resolved in five of the six symptomatic patients.
The prevalence of celiac disease is higher in children with type 1 DM than in the general pediatric population. Serological screening is useful for diagnosing asymptomatic celiac disease, detecting seroconversion and monitoring latent forms of disease.