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Cadmium accumulation in the human retina: effects of age, gender, and cellular toxicity.
Exp Eye Res. 2008 Jan; 86(1):41-51.EE

Abstract

Tobacco smoking and aging are among the few factors linked to age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a major cause of blindness in the elderly. Recent studies indicate that cadmium (Cd), an environmental toxic trace metal, is approximately four-fold higher in the retinas of smokers compared to non-smokers. In this study, we determined the effects of age and gender on Cd accumulation in human retinal tissues, specifically the neural retina, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), and choroid. Cadmium levels in cultured RPE cells or retinal tissues isolated from frozen donor eyes were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry (GF-AAS). Cadmium uptake in cultured human RPE cells (ARPE-19) was also assessed using GF-AAS. Toxic effects of cadmium were determined from cell loss (measured as a decrease in cell density) and lactate dehydrogenase release (an indicator of membrane disruption). In "young" eyes (< 55 years) Cd was highest in the retinal pigment epithelium and lowest in the neural retina. Cd was higher in all tissues in aged eyes (>or=55 years) and was significantly higher in the neural retina and RPE in older females. Cultured RPE cells exposed to Cd showed altered cell morphology, decreased cell survival, elevated ROS levels and concentration-dependent disruption of membrane integrity. We conclude that cadmium is accumulated differently in the neural retinal and RPE of older men and women. The deleterious effects of Cd on RPE cells indicate that this environmental toxin is a potentially important factor in age-related retinal disease.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Neuroscience & Cell Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, USA. nkwills@utmb.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

17967453

Citation

Wills, N K., et al. "Cadmium Accumulation in the Human Retina: Effects of Age, Gender, and Cellular Toxicity." Experimental Eye Research, vol. 86, no. 1, 2008, pp. 41-51.
Wills NK, Ramanujam VM, Chang J, et al. Cadmium accumulation in the human retina: effects of age, gender, and cellular toxicity. Exp Eye Res. 2008;86(1):41-51.
Wills, N. K., Ramanujam, V. M., Chang, J., Kalariya, N., Lewis, J. R., Weng, T. X., & van Kuijk, F. J. (2008). Cadmium accumulation in the human retina: effects of age, gender, and cellular toxicity. Experimental Eye Research, 86(1), 41-51.
Wills NK, et al. Cadmium Accumulation in the Human Retina: Effects of Age, Gender, and Cellular Toxicity. Exp Eye Res. 2008;86(1):41-51. PubMed PMID: 17967453.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Cadmium accumulation in the human retina: effects of age, gender, and cellular toxicity. AU - Wills,N K, AU - Ramanujam,V M Sadagopa, AU - Chang,J, AU - Kalariya,N, AU - Lewis,J R, AU - Weng,T-X, AU - van Kuijk,F J G M, Y1 - 2007/09/22/ PY - 2007/05/30/received PY - 2007/08/17/revised PY - 2007/09/14/accepted PY - 2007/10/31/pubmed PY - 2008/3/11/medline PY - 2007/10/31/entrez SP - 41 EP - 51 JF - Experimental eye research JO - Exp Eye Res VL - 86 IS - 1 N2 - Tobacco smoking and aging are among the few factors linked to age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a major cause of blindness in the elderly. Recent studies indicate that cadmium (Cd), an environmental toxic trace metal, is approximately four-fold higher in the retinas of smokers compared to non-smokers. In this study, we determined the effects of age and gender on Cd accumulation in human retinal tissues, specifically the neural retina, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), and choroid. Cadmium levels in cultured RPE cells or retinal tissues isolated from frozen donor eyes were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry (GF-AAS). Cadmium uptake in cultured human RPE cells (ARPE-19) was also assessed using GF-AAS. Toxic effects of cadmium were determined from cell loss (measured as a decrease in cell density) and lactate dehydrogenase release (an indicator of membrane disruption). In "young" eyes (< 55 years) Cd was highest in the retinal pigment epithelium and lowest in the neural retina. Cd was higher in all tissues in aged eyes (>or=55 years) and was significantly higher in the neural retina and RPE in older females. Cultured RPE cells exposed to Cd showed altered cell morphology, decreased cell survival, elevated ROS levels and concentration-dependent disruption of membrane integrity. We conclude that cadmium is accumulated differently in the neural retinal and RPE of older men and women. The deleterious effects of Cd on RPE cells indicate that this environmental toxin is a potentially important factor in age-related retinal disease. SN - 0014-4835 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/17967453/Cadmium_accumulation_in_the_human_retina:_effects_of_age_gender_and_cellular_toxicity_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0014-4835(07)00255-2 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -