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New trends in emerging pathogens.
Int J Food Microbiol. 2007 Dec 15; 120(3):217-24.IJ

Abstract

The emergence of pathogens is the result of a number of impact in all parts of the food chain. The emerging technologies in food production explain how new pathogens can establish themselves in the food chain and compromise food safety. The impact of the food technology is analysed for several bacteria, such as Yersinia, Campylobacter, Arcobacter, Helicobacter pullorum, Enterobacter sakazakii, Mycobacterium avium spp. paratuberculosis, prions related to vCJD and others. The importance of the ability of many microbes to form VBNC forms is elaborated on. Research on culture independent methods may address this outstanding issue to the better understanding of emerging pathogens. The "demerging" of pathogens also occur, and examples of this are explained. The reaction of bacteria to stresses and sublethal treatments, and how exposure to one stress factor can confer resistance to other stresses, literally speaking causing contagious resistance, are explained. The implication of this e.g. in modern approaches of food preservation, such as Minimally processed Foods, is considerable. Intestinal colonization of EHEC may be regulated by Quorum sensing, and this ability of microbes plays an important role in the colonization of microbes in food and on food processing equipment, an important factor in the emergence of pathogens. The emergence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as an opportunistic human pathogen, used for centuries for food and production of alcoholic beverages, calls for research in molecular tools to distinguish between probiotic and clinical strains. Cyclospora cayetanensis and Norovirus outbreaks can no longer be designated as emerging pathogens, they share however one characteristic in the epidemiology of emerging nature, the importance of the hygiene in the primary production stage, including supply of potable water, and the application of GMP and the HACCP principles in the beginning of the food chain. Hepatitis E virus is a potential emerging food borne pathogen and swine may serve as a source of infection in human, a most challenging issue in greater part of the world raising pigs. Tick-borne encephalitis virus infection, either thick borne or caused by consumption of raw milk, is an increasing trend in the industrialized part of the world. Consumer awareness, ethics of food, sustainability in food production, and trust in foods, are of growing importance to the consumer. The reaction of the consumer to new technology, such as nanotechnology, is unpredictable. Many efforts should be devoted to communication of non-biased information to both the food producers as well as the consumer.

Authors+Show Affiliations

University of Copenhagen, Department of Food Science, Food Microbiology, Rolighedsvej 30, 1958 Frederiksberg C, Denmark. niels-skovgaard@mail.tele.dk

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

17976849

Citation

Skovgaard, Niels. "New Trends in Emerging Pathogens." International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol. 120, no. 3, 2007, pp. 217-24.
Skovgaard N. New trends in emerging pathogens. Int J Food Microbiol. 2007;120(3):217-24.
Skovgaard, N. (2007). New trends in emerging pathogens. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 120(3), 217-24.
Skovgaard N. New Trends in Emerging Pathogens. Int J Food Microbiol. 2007 Dec 15;120(3):217-24. PubMed PMID: 17976849.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - New trends in emerging pathogens. A1 - Skovgaard,Niels, Y1 - 2007/08/06/ PY - 2007/02/07/received PY - 2007/07/24/revised PY - 2007/07/27/accepted PY - 2007/11/3/pubmed PY - 2008/2/12/medline PY - 2007/11/3/entrez SP - 217 EP - 24 JF - International journal of food microbiology JO - Int J Food Microbiol VL - 120 IS - 3 N2 - The emergence of pathogens is the result of a number of impact in all parts of the food chain. The emerging technologies in food production explain how new pathogens can establish themselves in the food chain and compromise food safety. The impact of the food technology is analysed for several bacteria, such as Yersinia, Campylobacter, Arcobacter, Helicobacter pullorum, Enterobacter sakazakii, Mycobacterium avium spp. paratuberculosis, prions related to vCJD and others. The importance of the ability of many microbes to form VBNC forms is elaborated on. Research on culture independent methods may address this outstanding issue to the better understanding of emerging pathogens. The "demerging" of pathogens also occur, and examples of this are explained. The reaction of bacteria to stresses and sublethal treatments, and how exposure to one stress factor can confer resistance to other stresses, literally speaking causing contagious resistance, are explained. The implication of this e.g. in modern approaches of food preservation, such as Minimally processed Foods, is considerable. Intestinal colonization of EHEC may be regulated by Quorum sensing, and this ability of microbes plays an important role in the colonization of microbes in food and on food processing equipment, an important factor in the emergence of pathogens. The emergence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as an opportunistic human pathogen, used for centuries for food and production of alcoholic beverages, calls for research in molecular tools to distinguish between probiotic and clinical strains. Cyclospora cayetanensis and Norovirus outbreaks can no longer be designated as emerging pathogens, they share however one characteristic in the epidemiology of emerging nature, the importance of the hygiene in the primary production stage, including supply of potable water, and the application of GMP and the HACCP principles in the beginning of the food chain. Hepatitis E virus is a potential emerging food borne pathogen and swine may serve as a source of infection in human, a most challenging issue in greater part of the world raising pigs. Tick-borne encephalitis virus infection, either thick borne or caused by consumption of raw milk, is an increasing trend in the industrialized part of the world. Consumer awareness, ethics of food, sustainability in food production, and trust in foods, are of growing importance to the consumer. The reaction of the consumer to new technology, such as nanotechnology, is unpredictable. Many efforts should be devoted to communication of non-biased information to both the food producers as well as the consumer. SN - 0168-1605 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/17976849/New_trends_in_emerging_pathogens_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0168-1605(07)00419-9 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -