Primary coronary intervention in diabetic octogenarians with acute ST elevation myocardial infarction.Kardiol Pol 2007; 65(10):1181-6; discussion 1187-9KP
Diabetic patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) have higher mortality risk than non-diabetic patients. No data are available on long-term results of interventional treatment of ACS in diabetic patients aged > or =80 years.
To compare the effects of primary angioplasty (pPCI) on short- and long-term outcome in diabetic patients > or =80 years with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) compared to those without diabetes mellitus (DM) of similar age.
In 63 consecutive patients (22% with diabetes mellitus) aged 80-93 years (mean 83+/-3) with ST elevation ACS (ACS-STE) coronary angiography was performed. Severity of coronary atherosclerosis, effects of pPCI, one-day mortality, in-hospital mortality and one-year mortality were studied.
Severity of coronary atherosclerosis measured by angiographic Gensini score and author's own score was similar in diabetic and non-diabetic patients (23.25+/-9.6 vs. 20.6+/-10.2; NS, and 9.1+/-6.0 vs. 8.1+/-5.4; NS, respectively). In 78.6% of diabetic subjects and in 69.4% of those without DM, pPCI was performed. Successful pPCI, defined as TIMI 3 flow and residual infarct related stenosis <20%, was obtained in 92.2% of patients with DM compared to 83.7% of non-diabetics (NS). One-day mortality was 7.1 vs. 6.1% (NS), in-hospital mortality was 7.1 vs. 17.4% (NS). Successful pPCI reduced 30-day mortality threefold (OR=0.31; p <0.05). Contrast-induced nephropathy occurred in 35.7% of diabetic patients compared to 26.5% of those without diabetes (NS) Contrast-induced nephropathy increased risk for in-hospital mortality fivefold (p <0.02). No significant correlation between DM or baseline glucose level and in-hospital mortality was found. During one-year follow-up mortality rate in diabetic patients was 38.5% compared to 7.3% of those without diabetes (p <0.01). One-year mortality predictors were: age (OR=1.27; p=0.0047), metabolic syndrome (OR=4.4; p <0.04), type 2 diabetes (OR=5.25; p <0.02), insulin treatment (OR=5.7; p <0.03), baseline glucose level (OR=1.01; p <0.007), maximum CK-mass level (OR=1.006; p <0.05), noninvasive STEMI management (OR=5.0; p <0.02), and stroke (OR=7.5; p <0.006). Stroke (OR=40.0; p <0.005) and diabetes (OR=6.2; p <0.01) were identified by multivariable analysis as independent risk factors of one-year mortality.
In patients with DM aged > or =80 years with ACS-STE, severity of coronary atherosclerosis and in-hospital prognosis after pPCI seems to be similar to subjects in the same age without DM. Diabetes mellitus is an independent risk factor of one-year mortality after successful pPCI.