Transperitoneal versus retroperitoneal suprarenal cross-clamping for repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm with a hostile infrarenal aortic neck.Ann Vasc Surg. 2007 Nov; 21(6):687-94.AV
Infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) with a hostile infrarenal aortic neck unfit for endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) are more likely to require open repair with suprarenal aortic cross-clamping. We compared the results of the transperitoneal versus retroperitoneal approaches for repair of infrarenal AAA requiring suprarenal cross-clamping and the relative frequency of such techniques after incorporating EVAR into our clinical practice. From January 1998 through September 2005, 478 elective infrarenal aortic aneurysms were repaired. There were 160 (33%) open repairs (71% transperitoneal and 29% retroperitoneal) and 318 (67%) endovascular repairs. In 38 cases (24%) suprarenal cross-clamping was performed (47% transperitoneal and 53% retroperitoneal incisions) for a hostile infrarenal neck. A hostile aortic neck was defined as severe angulation (>60 degrees), short neck (<15 mm), extensive calcification, or circumferential thrombus. The median age was 70 years; 47% were men; 16% had diabetes mellitus, 29% pulmonary disease, 53% coronary artery disease, and 11% renal insufficiency. The median aneurysm size was 6.0 cm. A retrospective analysis was performed to compare 30-day postoperative outcomes between the trans- and retroperitoneal patient cohorts. The results were determined for two time periods to assess whether open repair with suprarenal cross- clamping was being performed more frequently as a result of increased utilization of EVAR in the contemporary period. After 2002, EVAR increased from 60% to 71% (p = 0.04) while open repair declined from 40% to 29% (p = 0.01). The retroperitoneal approach doubled from 19% to 39%, while the transperitoneal approach decreased from 81% to 61% (p = 0.02). Suprarenal cross-clamping increased by 11% after 2002. There was no significant difference in age, sex, aneurysm size, or comorbidities between the trans- and retroperitoneal groups with suprarenal cross-clamping. The 30-day mortality was 2/38 (5%) and occurred only in the transperitoneal group. The transperitoneal approach was associated with significantly greater blood loss and longer suprarenal cross-clamp times (2,400 vs. 1,800 mL and 38.0 vs. 29.5 min; p = 0.03), but there were no significant differences in 30-day postoperative complications. In our 7 years' experience, there has been a gradual increase in the utilization of EVAR for infrarenal AAAs. At the same time, more infrarenal AAAs with hostile aortic necks requiring suprarenal aortic cross-clamping were encountered. In such instances, the retroperitoneal approach is safer, with less perioperative blood loss and shorter suprarenal cross-clamp time. This is likely attributed to better exposure of the suprarenal abdominal aorta, allowing a more secure proximal anastomosis.