Trace determination of cannabinoids and opiates in wastewater and surface waters by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.J Chromatogr A. 2007 Dec 14; 1175(1):38-48.JC
A fast and reliable method using solid-phase extraction and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) has been developed for the simultaneous detection, identification and quantification of several central nervous system depressor drugs of abuse such as cannabinoids (Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, THC) and opiates (morphine, codeine, heroin, methadone, fentanyl) and their metabolites in water samples. Compounds were extracted from water by using Oasis HLB cartridges. After SPE enrichment, the selected depressor drugs, under UPLC optimized conditions, were separated in less than 8 min. Electrospray (ESI) tandem MS in positive ion mode and selected reaction monitoring was used for quantification. ESI-MS/MS conditions such as capillary and cone voltages, source and desolvation temperatures and cone and desolvation gas flow rates have been optimized and MS and MS/MS spectra of the studied compounds were obtained. At the working conditions four identification points were obtained as required by European Union guidelines for analysis by LC-MS/MS. Quality parameters (intra-day and inter-day precisions) for each analyte have been established in three different matrixes (purified, surface and waste waters). Recoveries were generally higher than 70% and instrumental quantification limits and limits of quantification were in the low pg and ng/l range, respectively. Finally, the method has been applied to the analysis of influent and effluents wastewaters and natural water samples from Catalonia (NE Spain) where the presence of several opiates such as morphine, codeine, norcodeine 2-ethylene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine and methadone and cannnabinoids such as THC and 11-nor-carboxy-Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol has been demonstrated.