Antiviral activity of esterified alpha-lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin against herpes simplex virus type 1. Comparison with the effect of acyclovir and L-polylysines.J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Dec 12; 55(25):10214-20.JA
The antiviral activity of methylated alpha-lactalbumin (Met-ALA), methylated and ethylated beta-lactoglobulins (Met- and Et-BLG) was evaluated against acyclovir (ACV)-sensitive and -resistant strains of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and compared to that of ACV and L-polylysines (4-15 kDa) using fixed or suspended Vero cell lines. Esterified whey proteins and their peptic hydrolyzates displayed protective action against HSV-1, which was relatively lower than that induced by ACV or L-polylysines. The higher activity of L-polylysines was maintained against an ACV-resistant strain of HSV-1, whereas ACV lost much of its activity. The mean 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) was about 0.8-0.9 microg/mL for L-polylysines against ACV-sensitive and -resistant strains of HSV-1 when using two concentrations of virus (50% and 100% cytopathic effect, CPE). The IC50 values of ACV against the sensitive strain of HSV-1 were 3 and 15 microg/mL when using the low and high concentrations of virus, respectively. When using 50% CPE, IC50 values for esterified whey proteins ranged from 20 to 95 microg/mL, depending on the nature of the ester group, the degree of esterification, and the nature of the protein. Using the real-time PCR technique, it was shown that Met-ALA inhibited HSV-1 replication.