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Effect of a voluntary food fortification policy on folate, related B vitamin status, and homocysteine in healthy adults.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Nov; 86(5):1405-13.AJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Mandatory folic acid fortification of food is effective in reducing neural tube defects and may even reduce stroke-related mortality, but it remains controversial because of concerns about potential adverse effects. Thus, it is virtually nonexistent in Europe, albeit many countries allow food fortification on a voluntary basis.

OBJECTIVE

The objective of the study was to examine the effect of a voluntary but liberal food fortification policy on dietary intake and biomarker status of folate and other homocysteine-related B vitamins in a healthy population.

DESIGN

The study was a cross-sectional study. From a convenience sample of 662 adults in Northern Ireland, those who provided a fasting blood sample and dietary intake data were examined (n = 441, aged 18-92 y). Intakes of both natural food folate and folic acid from fortified foods were estimated; we used the latter to categorize participants by fortified food intake.

RESULTS

Fortified foods were associated with significantly higher dietary intakes and biomarker status of folate, vitamin B-12, vitamin B-6, and riboflavin than were unfortified foods. There was no difference in natural food folate intake (range: 179-197 microg/d) between the fortified food categories. Red blood cell folate concentrations were 387 nmol/L higher and plasma total homocysteine concentrations were 2 micromol/L lower in the group with the highest fortified food intake (median intake: 208 microg/d folic acid) than in the nonconsumers of fortified foods (0 microg/d folic acid).

CONCLUSIONS

These results show that voluntary food fortification is associated with a substantial increase in dietary intake and biomarker status of folate and metabolically related B vitamins with potential beneficial effects on health. However, those who do not consume fortified foods regularly may have insufficient B vitamin status to achieve the known and potential health benefits.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Northern Ireland Centre for Food and Health, University of Ulster, Coleraine, United Kingdom. l.hoey@ulster.ac.ukNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

17991653

Citation

Hoey, Leane, et al. "Effect of a Voluntary Food Fortification Policy On Folate, Related B Vitamin Status, and Homocysteine in Healthy Adults." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 86, no. 5, 2007, pp. 1405-13.
Hoey L, McNulty H, Askin N, et al. Effect of a voluntary food fortification policy on folate, related B vitamin status, and homocysteine in healthy adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;86(5):1405-13.
Hoey, L., McNulty, H., Askin, N., Dunne, A., Ward, M., Pentieva, K., Strain, J., Molloy, A. M., Flynn, C. A., & Scott, J. M. (2007). Effect of a voluntary food fortification policy on folate, related B vitamin status, and homocysteine in healthy adults. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 86(5), 1405-13.
Hoey L, et al. Effect of a Voluntary Food Fortification Policy On Folate, Related B Vitamin Status, and Homocysteine in Healthy Adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;86(5):1405-13. PubMed PMID: 17991653.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Effect of a voluntary food fortification policy on folate, related B vitamin status, and homocysteine in healthy adults. AU - Hoey,Leane, AU - McNulty,Helene, AU - Askin,Nadina, AU - Dunne,Adrian, AU - Ward,Mary, AU - Pentieva,Kristina, AU - Strain,Jj, AU - Molloy,Anne M, AU - Flynn,Cliona A, AU - Scott,John M, PY - 2007/11/10/pubmed PY - 2007/12/21/medline PY - 2007/11/10/entrez SP - 1405 EP - 13 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am J Clin Nutr VL - 86 IS - 5 N2 - BACKGROUND: Mandatory folic acid fortification of food is effective in reducing neural tube defects and may even reduce stroke-related mortality, but it remains controversial because of concerns about potential adverse effects. Thus, it is virtually nonexistent in Europe, albeit many countries allow food fortification on a voluntary basis. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to examine the effect of a voluntary but liberal food fortification policy on dietary intake and biomarker status of folate and other homocysteine-related B vitamins in a healthy population. DESIGN: The study was a cross-sectional study. From a convenience sample of 662 adults in Northern Ireland, those who provided a fasting blood sample and dietary intake data were examined (n = 441, aged 18-92 y). Intakes of both natural food folate and folic acid from fortified foods were estimated; we used the latter to categorize participants by fortified food intake. RESULTS: Fortified foods were associated with significantly higher dietary intakes and biomarker status of folate, vitamin B-12, vitamin B-6, and riboflavin than were unfortified foods. There was no difference in natural food folate intake (range: 179-197 microg/d) between the fortified food categories. Red blood cell folate concentrations were 387 nmol/L higher and plasma total homocysteine concentrations were 2 micromol/L lower in the group with the highest fortified food intake (median intake: 208 microg/d folic acid) than in the nonconsumers of fortified foods (0 microg/d folic acid). CONCLUSIONS: These results show that voluntary food fortification is associated with a substantial increase in dietary intake and biomarker status of folate and metabolically related B vitamins with potential beneficial effects on health. However, those who do not consume fortified foods regularly may have insufficient B vitamin status to achieve the known and potential health benefits. SN - 0002-9165 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/17991653/Effect_of_a_voluntary_food_fortification_policy_on_folate_related_B_vitamin_status_and_homocysteine_in_healthy_adults_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/ajcn/86.5.1405 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -