Effect of Ramadan on the diurnal variation in short-term high power output.Chronobiol Int 2007; 24(5):991-1007CI
This study examined the effects of Ramadan fasting on anaerobic performances and their diurnal fluctuations. In a balanced and randomized study design, 12 subjects were measured for maximal power (P(max); force-velocity test), peak power (P(peak)), and mean power (P(mean)) with the Wingate test at 07:00, 17:00, and 21:00 h on four different occasions: one week before Ramadan (BR), the second week of Ramadan (SWR), the fourth week of Ramadan (ER), and two weeks after Ramadan (AR). There was an interval of 28 h between any two successive tests. Oral temperature was measured before each test. Under each condition, the results showed a time-of-day effect on oral temperature. Analysis of variance revealed a significant (Ramadanxtime-of-day of test) interaction effect on P(max). This variable improved significantly from morning to evening before Ramadan (1.1+/-0.2 W x kg(-1)), during the second week of Ramadan (0.6+/-0.2 W x kg(-1)), and two weeks after the end of Ramadan (0.9+/-0.2 W x kg(-1)). However, daily fluctuations disappeared during the fourth week of Ramadan. For P(peak) and P(mean), there was no significant Ramadan x test-time interaction. These variables improved significantly from morning to evening before Ramadan ([1+/-0.3 W x kg(-1)] for P(peak) and [1.7+/-1.6 W x kg(-1)] for P(mean)) and in the second week of Ramadan ([0.9+/-0.6 W x kg(-1)] for P(peak) and [1.7+/-1.5 W x kg(-1)] for P(mean)). However, they were not affected by time-of-day in the fourth week of Ramadan. Considering the effect of Ramadan on anaerobic performances, in comparison with before Ramadan, no significant difference was observed during Ramadan at 07:00 h. The variables were significantly lower in the second week of Ramadan and in the fourth week of Ramadan at 17:00 h and 21:00 h. P(mean) was not affected during the second week of Ramadan. In conclusion, the time-of-day effect on anaerobic power variables tends to disappear during Ramadan. In comparison with the period before Ramadan, anaerobic performances were unaffected in the morning but impaired in the evening during Ramadan.