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Diet and colorectal cancer: Review of the evidence.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate whether diet has a role in the development and progression of colorectal cancer (CRC).

QUALITY OF EVIDENCE

MEDLINE was searched from January 1966 to December 2006 for articles on the relationship between diet and CRC using the key words colorectal cancer and folic acid, calcium, vitamin D, red meat, or fibre. Evidence that these factors are associated with CRC came from case-control and prospective cohort studies and some clinical trials.

MAIN MESSAGE

Whether red meat is a culprit in causing CRC remains unanswered, although any effect it might have is likely moderate and related to processing or cooking. The effect of dietary fibre on risk of CRC has also been difficult to determine because fibre intake is generally low. Evidence that folic acid, calcium, and vitamin D reduce risk of CRC is stronger. In particular, recent research indicates that calcium and vitamin D might act together, rather than separately, to reduce the risk of colorectal adenomas. There might also be an interaction between low folate levels and high alcohol consumption and CRC.

CONCLUSION

Before dispensing dietary advice, physicians should understand the potential benefits and harm of specific components of various foods. People might be able to reduce their risk of CRC by increasing their vitamin and mineral levels through eating more vegetables and fruit. Multivitamin and mineral supplements can complement a healthy diet.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    947 Oshawa Blvd N, Oshawa, ON L1G 5V7. ryanharshman@rogers.com

    Source

    MeSH

    Canada
    Colorectal Neoplasms
    Diet
    Dietary Fats
    Dietary Fiber
    Dietary Supplements
    Evidence-Based Medicine
    Female
    Fruit
    Humans
    Incidence
    Male
    Nutrition Assessment
    Prognosis
    Risk Assessment
    Vegetables

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    18000268

    Citation

    Ryan-Harshman, Milly, and Walid Aldoori. "Diet and Colorectal Cancer: Review of the Evidence." Canadian Family Physician Medecin De Famille Canadien, vol. 53, no. 11, 2007, pp. 1913-20.
    Ryan-Harshman M, Aldoori W. Diet and colorectal cancer: Review of the evidence. Can Fam Physician. 2007;53(11):1913-20.
    Ryan-Harshman, M., & Aldoori, W. (2007). Diet and colorectal cancer: Review of the evidence. Canadian Family Physician Medecin De Famille Canadien, 53(11), pp. 1913-20.
    Ryan-Harshman M, Aldoori W. Diet and Colorectal Cancer: Review of the Evidence. Can Fam Physician. 2007;53(11):1913-20. PubMed PMID: 18000268.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Diet and colorectal cancer: Review of the evidence. AU - Ryan-Harshman,Milly, AU - Aldoori,Walid, PY - 2007/11/15/pubmed PY - 2008/1/8/medline PY - 2007/11/15/entrez SP - 1913 EP - 20 JF - Canadian family physician Medecin de famille canadien JO - Can Fam Physician VL - 53 IS - 11 N2 - OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether diet has a role in the development and progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: MEDLINE was searched from January 1966 to December 2006 for articles on the relationship between diet and CRC using the key words colorectal cancer and folic acid, calcium, vitamin D, red meat, or fibre. Evidence that these factors are associated with CRC came from case-control and prospective cohort studies and some clinical trials. MAIN MESSAGE: Whether red meat is a culprit in causing CRC remains unanswered, although any effect it might have is likely moderate and related to processing or cooking. The effect of dietary fibre on risk of CRC has also been difficult to determine because fibre intake is generally low. Evidence that folic acid, calcium, and vitamin D reduce risk of CRC is stronger. In particular, recent research indicates that calcium and vitamin D might act together, rather than separately, to reduce the risk of colorectal adenomas. There might also be an interaction between low folate levels and high alcohol consumption and CRC. CONCLUSION: Before dispensing dietary advice, physicians should understand the potential benefits and harm of specific components of various foods. People might be able to reduce their risk of CRC by increasing their vitamin and mineral levels through eating more vegetables and fruit. Multivitamin and mineral supplements can complement a healthy diet. SN - 1715-5258 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/18000268/Diet_and_colorectal_cancer:_Review_of_the_evidence_ L2 - http://www.cfp.ca/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=18000268 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -